A House but Not a Home: How Surveillance in Subsidized Housing Exacerbates Poverty and Reinforces Marginalization

The University of Chicago

A robust literature has shown that surveillance disproportionately targets poor people of color through the criminal justice and welfare systems. However, little empirical research traces the mechanisms through which surveillance reproduces inequality in other domains, such as subsidized housing, where private actors including property owners and landlords do the work of surveilling tenants. In this article, I apply the theoretical lens of surveillance to the case of subsidized housing to explore the symbolic and material consequences of being monitored at home. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 67 low-income Black mothers in the Sunnyside neighborhood in Houston, Texas, I argue that the scrutiny mothers face in and around their homes reproduces inequality through two key mechanisms. First, surveillance creates a home environment devoid of privacy, that mothers liken to being in prison. Mothers interpret this scrutiny as an effort to control and contain them because of their race, reinforcing racialized notions of presumptive Black criminality. Second, surveillance heightens the material risk for mothers of being caught breaking rules, which paves the way for eventual eviction and exacerbates poverty. Although mothers develop strategies to counter and at times resist disciplinary monitoring, these efforts come with drawbacks that can make surviving poverty harder. Taken together, these findings suggest that being surveilled at home not only diminishes low-income Black mothers’ status in society, but also pushes them into deeper economic precarity. This research extends our understanding of the reach of surveillance into the lives of the poor even in spaces considered to be private.

Publication
Social Forces
Publication Year
2020

Voluntary, Survivor-Centered Advocacy in Domestic Violence Agencies

Washington University in St. Louis

Voluntary, survivor-centered advocacy is a model of practice used in domestic violence organizations; however, more information is needed from the perspective of survivors on how to best facilitate survivor-centered approaches in a voluntary service format. This qualitative study used a thematic analysis to uncover core advocacy approaches from 25 female-identified survivors dwelling in domestic violence emergency shelter and transitional housing programs in two states. Themes revealed that three core approaches aid a voluntary, survivor-centered advocacy model: 1) Establishing a safe base for support, 2) Facilitating access and connection, and 3) Collaboration. Advocacy approaches that emphasize safety, mutuality, and availability of support best engage survivors in voluntary services to address needs and meet goals. Use of a strengths-based approach, psychoeducation, and resource-building contributes to the social and emotional well-being of survivors. Findings indicate community DV advocates should use adaptable advocacy models aimed at service access, connection, and collaborative resource acquisition. Voluntary, survivor-centered models use principals of trauma-informed care, though more widespread use of trauma-informed care (TIC) in voluntary services are needed. Advocates need organizational support to meet survivor needs. Implications for research include the need for fidelity studies and longitudinal research.

Publication
Advances in Social Work
Publication Year
2020

Identity in the context of early psychosis: a review of recent research

New York University

Purpose: The emergence of psychosis most frequently occurs during adolescence and young adulthood, a period of development in which identity is developed and consolidated. The present narrative review surveyed and synthesized recent empirical contributions to the issue of identity in the context of early psychosis, to inform clinical and future research considerations. Materials and Methods: A systematic search obtained 983 reports pertaining to identity and psychosis among youth and young adults. After screening the abstracts, 81 studies were reviewed in full, yielding 17 that met inclusion criteria. Studies were reviewed with regard to major themes by authors. Results: Three major themes emerged, the majority of which employed qualitative methods. The first theme indicated a disruption to personal identity posed by psychosis symptoms and the diagnosis of mental illness. The second theme suggested that identity difficulties may confer additional emotional and behavioural risk among this population. Third, young people with psychosis indicated the importance of restoring their personal identity, as distinct from their experiences of psychosis, during the recovery process. Conclusions: Identity-related concerns are important aspects of young people’s experience in the early stages of psychosis. Research is needed to determine the potential for interventions to support and enhance identity within early psychosis care.

Publication
Psychosis
Publication Year
2020

A Path Analysis Investigating the Relationships between Family Violence, Addictive Behaviors, and Trauma among Adolescents in China

The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Family violence is a public health concern in China. Exposure to family violence, including witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) between parents and/or experiencing child abuse, has numerous deleterious effects on adolescent’s mental and behavioral health. This study examined specific mental and behavioral health outcomes of family violence exposure including trauma symptoms and addictive behaviors using a nationally representative sample of adolescents in China. Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from 16,254 adolescents (M = 15.89 years of age, 47.69% female) using a self-administered survey. More than two-thirds of the sample reported having been exposed to child abuse or IPV at home. Adolescents who were exposed to child abuse and/or IPV were significantly more likely to misuse substances, engage in gambling activities and exhibited more trauma symptoms than their non-exposed peers. A multivariate path analysis revealed that child abuse had an indirect effect on severity of trauma symptoms through problem drinking, cigarette smoking, and gambling behavior. Witnessing IPV between parents had an indirect effect on trauma symptoms through problem drinking and cigarette smoking. An alternative pathway model suggested that child abuse and witnessing IPV between parents had indirect effects on a variety of substance misuse and gambling behavior through PTSD. Findings offer a unique insight into the effects of family violence exposure on adolescents in Greater China. Family violence awareness and intervention could be a meaningful intervention strategy to address substance use and behavioral health problems among adolescents in China.

Publication
Journal of Family Violence
Publication Year
2020

Depression After Open Heart Surgery: Influences of Optimism, Sex, and Event-Related Medical Factors

Florida State University

Postoperative depression is a multifaceted condition that can limit quality of life and potentially decrease the survival benefits of open heart surgery (OHS). We postulated that sex, pre-event character strengths, medical, and certain surgery indicators would predict post-event/myocardial infarction depression. To identify predictors, we collected three-wave survey data from 481 OHS patients at a large academic referral institution (age, 62+; female, 42%) and included key medical and surgical information. The final model (F[7, N = 293] = 28.15, p < 0.001, R = 0.408) accounted for over two fifths of the variance in post-OHS depression. Pre-event/OHS optimism mitigated post-OHS depression. Being female, older, living alone, longer surgical perfusion time, absence of left main disease greater than 50%, and pre-OHS depression were associated with the increased likelihood of post-OHS depression. Our findings suggest that teaching optimism to OHS patients might be beneficial in reducing the risk of postoperative depression and that female patients should be monitored more closely for the development of depression through an interdisciplinary approach.

Publication
The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Publication Year
2020

Does gender-bending help or hinder friending? The roles of gender and gender similarity in friendship dissolution

Department of Psychological Sciences

We explored how gender and gender similarity affects friendship dissolution following the transition to middle school. We predicted that both gender and gender similarity (measured by perceived similarity to own-gender and other-gender peers) explain dissolution trends and that less own-gender similarity or more other-gender similarity predicts more friendship dissolution. We considered gender and gender similarity at both the individual and dyad level (reflecting the discrepancy between friends). Participants were 198 students in Grade 6 (42% Latinx, 21% Caucasian, 10% Native American, 8% African American, 2% Asian American, and 17% mixed backgrounds; 77% qualified for free/reduced meals) in reciprocated same- or mixed-gender friendships followed from fall to spring of the academic year. Multilevel multimember logistic regression models, nesting friendships within each participating individual, demonstrated that girl–girl friendships were less likely to dissolve than boy–boy friendships, and mixed-gender friendships did not dissolve more than same-gender friendships. Feeling similar to one’s own gender predicted less dissolution, but feeling similar to the other gender did not increase friendship dissolution. There was no support for the hypothesis that feeling similar to both genders (i.e., androgyny) protected against friendship dissolution, nor was there any support for the hypothesis that dyad-level differences in gender similarity would predict dissolution. The discussion focuses on the importance of conducting individual and dyad-level analyses as well as including gender similarity constructs when studying gender differences in friendships and their trajectories over time.

Publication
Developmental Psychology
Publication Year
2020

Addressing Gaps in Pediatric Scientist Development: The Department Chair View of 2 AMSPDC-Sponsored Programs

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

None available.

Publication
Journal of Pediatrics
Publication Year
2020

Healthcare Providers’ Experiences with Gaps, Barriers, and Facilitators Faced by Family Caregivers of Children with Respiratory Diseases

Johns Hopkins School of Nursing

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify healthcare providers’ experiences of the gaps in the healthcare system, barriers to obtaining care, and facilitators that promoted safe, quality care for family caregivers of children with respiratory diseases. Design and methods: A qualitative, descriptive design was used with 13 pediatric healthcare providers. Findings: Gaps included themes of 1) fragmented healthcare system and 2) lack of asthma management knowledge. Barriers included themes of 1) poor access to healthcare and medications, 2) non-adherence, and 3) linguistic diversity and poor health literacy. Facilitators of optimal respiratory management included themes of 1) education, 2) improved communication, and 3) peer support. Conclusions: Through better understanding the gaps, barriers, and facilitators, pediatric nurses will be able to more effectively anticipate and address the needs of the caregivers. Practice implications: The nurse is in a pivotal role to empower caregivers with the skills and resources to address challenges and connect them with providers for optimal respiratory management.

Publication
Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Publication Year
2020

Probation Officers’ and Supervisors’ Perspectives on Critical Resources for Implementing Specialty Mental Health Probation

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

This paper presents the results of a qualitative study designed to explore and identify the resources that probation officers need to implement specialized mental health probation caseloads, a promising practice that enhances mental health treatment engagement and reduces recidivism among people with mental illnesses. Our research team conducted a directed content analysis guided by the Practical, Robust Implementation and Sustainability Model (PRISM) to analyze qualitative interviews with 16 specialty mental health probation officers and their supervising chiefs. Results indicated five components and resources related to multiple PRISM constructs: (1) meaningfully reduced caseload sizes (intervention design), (2) officers’ ability to build rapport and individualize probation (organizational staff characteristics), (3) specialized training that is offered regularly (implementation and sustainability infrastructure), (4) regular case staffing and consultation (implementation and sustainability infrastructure), and (5) communication and collaboration with community-based providers (external environment). Agencies implementing specialized mental health probation approaches should pay particular attention to selecting officers and chiefs and establishing the infrastructure to implement and sustain specialty mental health probation.

Publication
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research
Publication Year
2020

Beautiful stranger: Voices from the front lines of community practice in Israel

Bryn Mawr College

Over the past few decades, economic, political and cultural forces have altered the development of social policies and affected the life circumstances of oppressed communities in many countries. In response, calls for greater understanding and awareness of macro practice skills and interventions have been increasing within many of the social care professions. These calls have been particularly strong within the social work profession. A major field in macro social work is community practice, which aims to help people organise, plan and act for change. To date, there has been a dearth of studies examining social workers’ involvement in community practice at the ground level. Drawing on in‐depth interviews with 26 community social workers in public social services in Israel, this qualitative study examines community social workers’ everyday experiences of community practice and the meanings they attribute to it. Findings highlight three main themes: (a) the elusive and unbounded nature of community practice; (b) the tense relations that community social workers maintain with various actors within the profession; and (c) the complex relations they maintain with the communities in which they work. We discuss these findings in light of Georg Simmel’s concept of ‘the stranger’. Implications to community practice are outlined.

Publication
Health & Social Care in the Community
Publication Year
2020

A Sociometric Approach to Understanding Concordance in Substance Use Perceptions Among Youth Experiencing Homelessness

University of Denver

Objective: Most studies examining peer influence on drug-use among youth experiencing homelessness (YEH) have relied on perceptions of peer use rather than measuring peers’ self-reported use, an approach that can inflate esti- mates of peer substance use behavior. Sociometric network data provide an op- timal mechanism to compare perceptual data to actual self-reports from peers. Method: Using an event-based approach, we recruited a sample of YEH (N 5 241), ages13–25years,between October 2011 and February 2012 from 2 drop-in cen- ters—1 in Hollywood, CA, and 1 in Santa Monica, CA. We used multilevel multiple membership modeling to investigate participant-level, network-level, and relationship- level factors associated with the accuracy of respondent perceptions. Results: The accuracy of respondent perceptions of peer substance use was high (70%–90% de- pending on the substance). The individual- and network-level factors associated with accuracy or inaccuracy varied by substance. Conclusions: Interventions designed to reduce the risk of substance use among YEH may benefit from using a social norms approach that emphasizes changing norms at a community/group level rather than at an individual level.

Publication
Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research
Publication Year
2020

Social Work Scholarship on Forced Migration: A Scoping Review

University of Washington

This scoping review identifies and analyses historical to present–day contributions of social work scholarship on forced migration, with the aim of reviewing trends and identifying priority areas for the discipline moving forward. This review examined 331 articles related to forced migration published in 40 social work journals over four decades (1978 to 2019). Findings illustrate notable trends in temporal, methodological, topical and geographical dimensions and how those vary by first authors’ locations, research sites and study populations. Temporally, the number of articles has been increasing, quadrupling between 2001–2010 and 2011–2019, with 20 social work journals doubling their number of articles. Methodologically, the large majority of articles were qualitative and/or conceptual. Topically, the most common were practice, intervention, health and mental health, while the least common topics included human rights, social justice, poverty, religion, violence, history and theory. Geographically, social work scholarship was mainly focused on refugees in the Global North and third-country resettlement contexts, and authored by scholars in the Global North. Findings thus reveal critical gaps in topics and geographical biases, raising questions related to issues of ethics, power and the production of knowledge about forced migration in the social work academy.

Publication
The British Journal of Social Work
Publication Year
2020

Developing Interprofessional Competence: Results of Embedding TeamSTEPPS® in All Semesters of an Accelerated and Traditional BSN Program

City University of New York School of Public Health

This study assessed the effectiveness of a curriculum designed to teach interprofessional communication and teamwork skills to traditional and accelerated baccalaureate nursing students. The curriculum was designed to incorporate TeamSTEPPS® concepts using incremental learning experiences and a variety of instructional techniques throughout all clinical program semesters; more than 200 students representing four cohorts were enrolled in the study. Three tools were used to evaluate program effectiveness. Both accelerated and traditional groups demonstrated varying degrees of improvement on all tools. The curriculum design positively influenced students’ communication and teamwork skills, advancing their interprofessional competency.

Publication
Nursing Education Perspectives:
Publication Year
2020

Air pollution and green consumption of consumers in China’s urban areas: a norm activation perspective

University of Iowa

This study aims to explore how consumers’ psychological factors affect their pro-environment purchasing behavior in a smog-ridden city. Based on the Protective Action Decision Model and Heuristic–Systematic Model, this study proposed a model to investigate consumers’ decision-making process in purchasing green anti-smog products. It also provided new empirical evidence for the role of personal norms on consumers’ green consumption behavior by examining the differences between two groups of consumers (i.e., green and non-green) through a multi-group path analysis. The predictions were tested using a questionnaire survey of 1,124 participants living in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region of China. Results indicated that product knowledge, smog knowledge, risk perception, and systematic processing positively affected consumers’ purchase intention. In addition, the significant differences of consumers with various personal norms in purchase decision-making were found in the current study. In the green group, product knowledge positively affected consumers’ risk perceptions and systematic processing intentions. Information seeking increased their purchase intentions. However, these relationships were not significant in the non-green group. This study contributes to the existing literature by linking consumers’ protective behaviors with green consumption and providing a comprehensive model for predicting consumers’ purchase decisions.

Publication
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal
Publication Year
2020

Does mindfulness practice promote psychological functioning or is it the other way around? A daily diary study

University of Utah

Mindfulness-based interventions are commonly used to reduce psychological symptoms and enhance positive qualities of human functioning. However, the influence of mindfulness practice dosage remains poorly understood, limiting dissemination and implementation efforts. The current study examined the association between practice dosage and several constructs related to psychological functioning (positive and negative affect, state mindfulness) over the course of a standardized mindfulness-based intervention (Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement). Twenty-five participants completed daily diary assessments for 12 weeks. Two-part gamma regression models examined the dichotomous (did practice occur?) and continuous (how much practice?) components of practice minutes. Practice time and outcomes showed same-day relationships in the expected directions. Lagged models, however, showed no evidence that current day practice time predicts subsequent day outcomes. In contrast, higher current day negative affect predicted less subsequent day practice time, and higher current day mindfulness predicted more subsequent day practice time. In a post hoc analysis, practice time moderated the link between day-to-day affect, strengthening the link for positive affect and weakening the link for negative affect. Collectively, these findings suggest that the causal direction linking practice time and outcome may flow from outcome to practice time, rather than the reverse—with potential recursive relationships between these factors. Further examination of lagged relationships between practice time and outcome as well as random assignment of participants to varying practice dosages (e.g., in within-person microrandomized trials) may help clarify the influence of this central treatment ingredient within mindfulness-based interventions.

Publication
Psychotherapy
Publication Year
2020

Prescription Opioid Distribution after the Legalization of Recreational Marijuana in Colorado

Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine

There have been dynamic changes in prescription opioid use in the US but the state level policy factors contributing to these are incompletely understood. We examined the association between the legalization of recreational marijuana and prescription opioid distribution in Colorado. Utah and Maryland, two states that had not legalized recreational marijuana, were selected for comparison. Prescription data reported to the Drug Enforcement Administration for nine opioids used for pain (e.g., fentanyl, morphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, oxymorphone) and two primarily for opioid use disorder (OUD, methadone and buprenorphine) from 2007 to 2017 were evaluated. Analysis of the interval pre (2007–2012) versus post (2013–2017) marijuana legalization revealed statistically significant decreases for Colorado (P < 0.05) and Maryland (P < 0.01), but not Utah, for pain medications. There was a larger reduction from 2012 to 2017 in Colorado (–31.5%) than the other states (–14.2% to –23.5%). Colorado had a significantly greater decrease in codeine and oxymorphone than the comparison states. The most prevalent opioids by morphine equivalents were oxycodone and methadone. Due to rapid and pronounced changes in prescription opioid distribution over the past decade, additional study with more states is needed to determine whether cannabis policy was associated with reductions in opioids used for chronic pain.

Publication
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Publication Year
2020

The initial development and validation of the Racial Socialization Competency Scale: Quality and quantity

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

The present study investigated the reliability and validity of the Racial Socialization Competency Scale (RaSCS). As posited by the Racial Encounter Coping Appraisal and Socialization Theory (RECAST), the RaSCS consists of 3 factors representing 3 novel dimensions of racial socialization competency present in families (e.g., stress, skills, and confidence). Responses to the RaSCS were collected from 361 self-identified Black and African American parents and primary caretakers across the United States. After factor analysis, three scales and 27 items were maintained. Evidence was consistently found for 2 subscales within the stress dimension, namely “Call to Action” and “General” racial socialization stressors. Dimensions were also related to their respectively hypothesized constructs, including overall stress, racial socialization frequency, and self-efficacy. Future directions and recommendations on the measure’s use, particularly in the context of interventions, are also discussed.

Publication
Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Publication Year
2020

Body Appreciation and Health Care Avoidance: A Brief Report

The University of Kansas

Research suggests that body image is related to health behaviors and health care use, but possible mechanisms for this relationship remain unclear. The current study examined the presence of a relationship between body appreciation and avoiding the doctor to avoid being weighed, using a diverse sample of women (N = 499). Controlling for body size and determinants of health care utilization, logistic regression results suggested that women with higher body appreciation were less likely to avoid health care to avoid being weighed (odds ratio = 0.38, p < .001). In addition, differences in avoiding the doctor to avoid being weighed were found for the covariates (that is, age, race, body mass index, and socioeconomic status). These results inform knowledge regarding barriers to health care use and the relationship between body image and health care use. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications for future research, social work interventions, and social work education to promote women's health and well-being.

Publication
Health & Social Work
Publication Year
2020

Pathways From Intimate Partner Violence to Academic Disengagement Among Women University Students

Washington University in St. Louis

More knowledge is needed related to collegiate intimate partner violence (IPV) and the pathways between experiencing physical and psychological IPV and academic disengagement. Students in a University System in the southwest completed an online survey including measures of physical and psychological IPV, academic disengagement, sense of community, and safety on campus. Conditional process analyses were used to understand key pathways for 6,818 woman identified students. All models found a significant indirect path between physical and psychological IPV and academic disengagement via depression symptoms. Students’ sense of community on campus was associated with less academic disengagement regardless of physical violence. The impact of psychological IPV on disengagement was stronger for those with lower senses of community. Enhancing screening and education, providing effective mental health counseling, and increasing advocacy will help institutions better address IPV.

Publication
Violence and Victims
Publication Year
2020

Gender Differences in the Marital Plans and Union Transitions of First Cohabitations

Cornell University

In an era of changing relationship norms, plans for marriage are an increasingly complex yet important indicator of the link between cohabitation and marriage. Despite qualitative evidence on this complexity, little is known about the nuances of marital plans and gender differences at the population level. This study introduces the concept of “informal” marital plans—cohabitations beginning with some intentions to marry that had yet to be formalized. Drawing on data of heterosexual cohabitors in their first coresidential union from the National Survey of Family Growth (2011–2015, n  = 5545), I examine the sociodemographic correlates of marital plans as well as their consequences for men’s and women’s union transitions. The results show significant gender differences in reports of marital plans at the time of moving in together, with women more likely to report engagement and men more likely to report informal marital plans. Although having any marital intentions is positively associated with transitioning to marriage for both genders, engagement is a significantly stronger predictor of marriage than informal marital plans. Pronounced gender differences are found with respect to the dissolution of first cohabitations, as both informal and formal marital plans are more protective against dissolution for men than for women. Distinguishing informal marital plans from engagement provides meaningful new insights into the role of cohabitation in modern American union formation.

Publication
Population Research and Policy Review
Publication Year
2020