An umbrella review of meta-analyses of interventions to improve maternal outcomes for teen mothersedit
The purpose of this study was to perform an umbrella review of meta-analyses of intervention studies designed to improve outcomes of pregnant or parenting teenagers. An extensive search retrieved nine reports which provided 21 meta-analyses analyses. Data were extracted by two reviewers. Methodological quality was assessed using the AMSTAR Instrument. Most effect sizes were small but high quality studies showed significant outcomes for reduced low birth weight (RR = 0.60), repeat pregnancies/births (OR = 0.47–0.62), maternal education (OR = 1.21–1.83), and maternal employment (OR = 1.26). Several parenting outcomes (parent-child teaching interaction post-intervention [SMD = −0.91] and at follow-up [SMD = −1.07], and parent-child relationship post-intervention [SMD = −0.71] and at follow-up [SMD = −0.90]) were significant, but sample sizes were very small. Many reports did not include moderator analyses. Behavioral interventions offer limited resources and occur too late to mitigate the educational and social disparities that precede teen pregnancy. Future intervention research and policies that redress the social determinants of early childbearing are recommended.