Beyond CTOs: Empowering clients to achieve community integration


By bhadmin February 2, 2021

This article reviews the effectiveness of community treatment orders (CTOs), a community-based treatment program initiated to improve compliance with treatment plans and address societal concerns regarding seriously mentally ill individuals. It assesses the impact of CTOs on individuals who have participated in this treatment and addresses the question of whether CTOs have the potential to resolve mental health problems in the community. This article examines the use of CTOs in a number of countries, and in particular, the outcomes of a program in Toronto, Canada. Finally, it looks at advanced directives, intensive case management, and recovery-oriented service system reform as viable and empowering alternatives to CTOs.

Fahs-Beck Scholars

Meet the Scholars

Fahs-Beck Fellows

Meet the Fellows


Our grant programs are changing.


Learn more