Daily hassles and African American adolescent females’ psychological functioning: Direct and interactive associations with gender role orientationedit
Given that stressors may accumulate across the life span, the extent to which daily hassles are associated with African American females’ psychological functioning during the adolescent years remains an important question. Understanding the potential impact of daily hassles is important due to indications that African American women report greater daily hassles and have higher incidence rates of stress-related disorders. The current study examines the relationship between daily hassles and psychological functioning (e.g., depression and anxiety symptoms) among 103 U.S. African American adolescent females (M = 15.50; SD = 1.70) residing in a moderately-sized Midwestern city. Additionally, this investigation explores gender role orientation as a moderator of this relationship. Results indicated that increased daily hassles were associated with greater depressive and anxiety symptoms. Also, this investigation provides some support for the direct and moderating role of gender role orientation. A greater feminine or androgynous role orientation was associated with fewer depressive and anxiety symptoms. In addition, although not directly associated, this investigation indicated that a masculine role orientation moderated the association between daily hassles and girls’ psychological outcomes. Specifically, among African American adolescent females with a greater masculine role orientation, increased daily hassles were associated with reduced psychological functioning (e.g., greater depressive and anxiety symptoms). Neither feminine nor androgynous role orientation, however, moderated the relationship between daily hassles and psychological functioning (e.g., depressive and anxiety symptoms). Implications of findings are discussed.