Understanding School Sabotage Among Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence From Diverse Populations

Washington University in St. Louis

Higher education is an important pathway to safety for survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). Recent work documents tactics of school sabotage (behaviors aimed at sabotaging educational efforts) identified by school staff and IPV advocates. However, the perspectives of current students who are IPV survivors are unexplored. As part of a multiphasic study, 20 semi-structured qualitative interviews with community college students who reported current or recent IPV were conducted. Identified tactics included disrupting child care, emotional abuse tied to school, and using manipulation to limit access to campus or resources. Identified impacts include preventing focus, diminished academic achievement, emotional or mental health challenges, and instilling a desire to overcome.

Publication
Violence Against Women
Publication Year
2019

Integrative Systemic Therapy: Lessons on Collaboration and Training for the 21st Century

Oklahoma State University

The field of couple, marital, and family therapy (CMFT) is at an important juncture of identity development and synthesis. Integrative Systemic Therapy (IST) is a problem‐centered metaframeworks approach that meets the growing needs of family therapists working with diverse and complex family systems and restores the field to its original focus on collaboration. This paper describes the process by which IST developed featuring anecdotes from live interviews with the founders. We briefly outline IST’s theoretical pillars and the essential way IST practitioners deliver treatment including a blueprint for therapy. Finally, we propose that IST is a comprehensive, systemic guide uniquely beneficial to CMFT training and discuss our approach to integrating IST into our training of students in a COAMFTE accredited program.

Publication
Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
Publication Year
2019

A Research Protocol for Studying Participatory Processes in the Use of Evidence in Child Welfare Systems

Washington University

This paper presents a protocol for a funded study of technical assistance strategies used to support the use of evidence, and, in particular, how participatory processes contribute to the use of evidence to improve outcomes for populations. Findings from the study will increase understanding of the relationships between technical assistance, stakeholder participation and evidence use in child and family services. The authors argue that publishing such a protocol can increase transparency between researchers and practitioners and raise awareness of the need for research on how stakeholder participation can strengthen evidence use in child welfare service settings. The authors also reflect on the potential value and limitations of published protocols. This study will systematically gather input from stakeholders with expertise in technical assistance to develop a compilation of strategies that can be used to support the use of evidence. The study will identify strategies that include stakeholder involvement and assess which strategies under what conditions facilitated the use of research evidence. The study will address four research questions: What technical assistance strategies are used to support the use of research evidence? What are the consensus-driven terms and definitions of identified strategies? To what extent do technical assistance strategies involve stakeholders and for what purpose?

Publication
Evidence & Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice
Publication Year
2019

Public Health Social Work as a Unifying Framework for Social Work’s Grand Challenges

University at Buffalo

Introduced in 2013 by the American Academy of Social Work and Social Welfare, the Grand Challenges for Social Work (GCSW) implicitly embrace a public health perspective. However, the lack of a specific overarching conceptual framework creates a challenge for moving the GCSW from concept to practice. In this article, authors propose that public health social work (PHSW) provides a unifying framework for moving the GCSW from concept to practice. Authors undertook a review of the literature, including a review of published literature and all Web sites and other Web materials focused on the GCSW. Three GCSW were selected to illustrate the utility of PHSW and the social work health impact model (SWHIM): (1) stopping family violence, (2) eradicating social isolation, and (3) achieving opportunity and justice. Using a wide-lens PHSW approach, the illustrations focus on actions that can influence populations through strengthened environments and multilevel interventions. The public health field reflects the rigorous science behind the theoretical models, community-based approaches, and attention to effects of social determinants of health at the population level. Because health and inequalities are the focus of many of the GCSW, incorporating both public and population health, together with the SWHIM, can help provide structure to achieve collective goals.

Publication
Social Work
Publication Year
2019

Process and Product Innovations from a Statewide Capacity-Building Initiative for Substance Use Treatment and Recovery

Washington University in St. Louis

Statewide behavioral health collaborative capacity-building initiatives are designed to support substance use agencies in strengthening their behavioral health services delivery and implementing evidence-supported practices. This study explored the types of innovations resulting from one such statewide behavioral health initiative, as well as the facilitators and barriers to implementing these innovations, from the perspective of the substance use agencies involved in the initiative. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 67 agency stakeholders and 93 agency progress reports. Results indicated that 161 innovations emerged through this project for the substance use agencies, including staffing; policy, procedure, and technology; partnerships; training and media products; and service innovations. Agency facilitators included collaboration/partnership, project buy-in, and quality of agency staff. Barriers to implementation included lack of collaboration or partnerships, agency infrastructure or climate, lack of project buy-in, and funding and billing issues. The article concludes with a discussion on implications for social work practice in behavioral health.

Publication
Health & Social Work
Publication Year
2019

Modes of Belonging: Debating School Demographics in Gentrifying New York

New York University

This article examines the frameworks that stakeholders bring to debates about diversifying schools in gentrifying areas of New York City. Using critical ethnographic methods, I explore stakeholders’ hopes and fears about the effects of shifting school demographics and the relationships between student demographics and school quality. I find that stakeholders use racialized discourses of belonging to discuss whether, why, and how student demographics matter. These discourses of belonging overlap with perceptions of demographic change as opportunities for integration, fears of gentrification, and threats to individual property. Complicating celebrations of “diversity,” I explore the ways in which race is implicated in considerations of who belongs in a school and to whom a school belongs.

Publication
American Educational Research Journal
Publication Year
2019

Preventive Benefits of U.S. Childcare Subsidies in Supervisory Child Neglect

The Ohio State University

Using data from age 3 of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, the current study explores the complex relationships between U.S. child care subsidies and neglect. Specifically, the study examines two research questions: (1) Are U.S. child care subsidies associated with self-reported neglect among low-income mothers? (2) What individual types of self-reported neglect are significantly reduced by receipt of child care subsidy? Using negative binomial regression examining the relationships among mothers who were income-eligible for child care subsidy, we found that child care subsidy was associated with lower levels of supervisory neglect, indicating an important role of subsidy in the lives of low-income families.

Publication
Children & Society
Publication Year
2019

Growth-promoting supervision: Reflections from women of color psychology trainees

Loyola University Chicago

This paper discusses growth-promoting supervisory practices from the perspectives of women of color psychology trainees. Based on three personal narratives, we discuss the unique ways that supervisors invite the multiple salient identities of trainees into the supervisory relationship and engage in a mentorship approach tailored to each trainee. We discuss key themes that emerged across the three narratives: the importance of a supervisor pivoting between the role of the expert and the role of a learner, the value of embracing an attitude of shared responsibility toward promoting trainee growth, and the role of cultural humility in the supervisory relationship. We draw from various theories in framing our work, including Paulo Freire’s theory of conscientização and Atkinson, Morten, and Sue’s (1998) Five-Stage Model of Cultural/Racial Identity Development. We close with situating these impactful supervisory practices within the context of the American Psychological Association’s (2015) “Guidelines for Clinical Supervision in Health Service Psychology.”

Publication
Training and Education in Professional Psychology
Publication Year
2019

Development of a Dementia-Focused End-of-Life Planning Tool: The LEAD Guide (Life-Planning in Early Alzheimer’s and Dementia)

University of Utah

Background and Objectives: To address the unique characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) that complicate end-of-life (EOL), we created, refined, and validated a dementia-focused EOL planning instrument for use by healthy adults, those with early-stage dementia, family caregivers, and clinicians to document EOL care preferences and values within the current or future context of cognitive impairment. Research Design and Methods: A mixed-method design with four phases guided the development and refinement of the instrument: (1) focus groups with early-stage ADRD and family caregivers developed and confirmed the tool content and comprehensiveness; (2) evaluation by content experts verified its utility in clinical practice; (3) a sample of healthy older adults (n = 153) and adults with early-stage ADRD (n = 38) completed the tool, whose quantitative data were used to describe the psychometrics of the instrument; and (4) focus groups with healthy older adults, family caregivers, and adults with early-stage ADRD informed how the guide should be used by families and in clinical practice. Results: Qualitative data supported the utility and feasibility of a dementia-focused EOL planning tool; the six scales have high internal consistency (α = 0.66–0.89) and high test–rest reliability (r = .60–.90). On average, both participant groups reported relatively high concern for being a burden to their families, a greater preference for quality over length of life, a desire for collaborative decision-making process, limited interest in pursuing life-prolonging measures, and were mixed in their preference to control the timing of their death. Across disease progression, preferences for location of care changed, whereas preferences for prolonging life remained stable. Discussion and Implications: The LEAD Guide (Life-Planning in Early Alzheimer’s and Dementia) has the potential to facilitate discussion and documentation of EOL values and care preferences prior to loss of decisional capacity, and has utility for healthy adults, patients, families, providers, and researchers.

Publication
Innovation in Aging
Publication Year
2019

The Family Resilience Inventory: A Culturally Grounded Measure of Current and Family‐of‐Origin Protective Processes in Native American Families

Tulane University

The purpose of this article is to introduce the Family Resilience Inventory (FRI) and present findings on initial efforts to validate this measure. The FRI is designed to assess family resilience in one’s current family and in one’s family of origin, enabling the assessment of family protective factors across these generations. The development of the FRI was the result of many years of ethnographic research with Southeastern Native American tribes; yet, we believe that this scale is applicable to families of various backgrounds. Items for the FRI were derived directly from thematic analysis of qualitative data with 436 participants, resulting in two 20‐item scales. Due to missing data, eight cases were removed from the 127 participants across two tribes, resulting in an analytic sample size of 119. Conceptually, the FRI is comprised of two factors or scales measuring distinct dimensions of family resilience (i.e., resilience in one’s current family and resilience in one’s family of origin). The results of the confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized two‐factor structure (X2(644) = 814.14, p = .03, X2/df = 1.10, RMSEA = .03, CFI = .97, TLI = .96). Both the subscales and the total FRI scale (α = .92) demonstrated excellent reliability. The results also provided preliminary evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. This measure fills a gap in the absence of community‐based, culturally grounded, and empirical measures of family resilience. The examination of family resilience, which may occur across generations, is an exciting new contribution of the FRI.

Publication
Family Process
Publication Year
2019

Test–Retest Reliability of Graph Theoretic Metrics in Adolescent Brains

University of California, San Francisco

Graph theory analysis of structural brain networks derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become a popular analytical method in neuroscience, enabling advanced investigations of neurological and psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) the effects of edge weighting schemes and (2) the effects of varying interscan periods on graph metrics within the adolescent brain. We compared a binary (B) network definition with three weighting schemes: fractional anisotropy (FA), streamline count, and streamline count with density and length correction (SDL). Two commonly used global and two local graph metrics were examined. The analysis was conducted with two groups of adolescent volunteers who received DTI scans either 12 weeks apart (16.62 ± 1.10 years) or within the same scanning session (30 min apart) (16.65 ± 1.14 years). The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to assess test–retest reliability and the coefficient of variation (CV) was used to assess precision. On average, each edge scheme produced reliable results at both time intervals. Weighted measures outperformed binary measures, with SDL weights producing the most reliable metrics. All edge schemes except FA displayed high CV values, leaving FA as the only edge scheme that consistently showed high precision while also producing reliable results. Overall findings suggest that FA weights are more suited for DTI connectome studies in adolescents.

Publication
Brain Connectivity
Publication Year
2019

Intimate Partner Violence Screening in the Prenatal Period: Variation by State, Insurance, and Patient Characteristics

University of Denver

Objective To measure the proportion of women screened for IPV during prenatal care; to assess the predictors of prenatal IPV screening. Methods We use the CDC’s 2012 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, representative of births in 24 states and New York City (N = 28,581). We calculated descriptive and logistic regressions, weighted to deal with state-clustered observations. Results 49.2% of women in our sample reported being screened for IPV while pregnant. There were higher screening rates among women of color, and those who had not completed high school, never been married, received WIC benefits, initiated prenatal care in the first trimester, and were publicly insured. State screening rates varied (29.9–62.9%). Among states, mandated perinatal depression screening or training was positively associated with IPV screening. 3.6% of women in our sample reported prenatal IPV but were not screened during pregnancy. Conclusions for Practice Current efforts have not led to universal screening. We need to better understand when and why providers do not screen pregnant patients for IPV.

Publication
Maternal and Child Health Journal
Publication Year
2019

Using Qualitative Data-Mining to Identify Skillful Practice in Child Welfare Case Records

University of California, Berkeley

Using qualitative data-mining methods, this study analyzed 39 child welfare case records in order to identify examples of skillful practice. Conducted in partnership with a public child welfare agency in northern California, the study found that child welfare workers are implementing many of the practices promoted by statewide and national child welfare practice frameworks. Broad categories of skillful practice identified included: (1) effective communication by social workers, (2) support for client self-determination, and (3) active intervention strategies. Study findings provide support for incorporating case record review processes in training and supervision in order to integrate practice-based expertise with research-based evidence.

Publication
Journal of Public Child Welfare
Publication Year
2019

Improving Patient Safety and Patient–Provider Communication

University of Iowa

Many hospitalized patients experience barriers to effective patient–provider communication that can negatively impact their care. These barriers include difficulty physically accessing the nurse call system, communicating about pain and other needs, or both. For many patients, these barriers are a result of their admitting condition and not of an underlying chronic disability. Speech-language pathologists have begun to address patients’ short-term communication needs with an array of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) strategies. This study used a between-groups experimental design to evaluate the impact of providing patients with AAC systems so that they could summon help and communicate with their nurses. The study examined patients’ and nurses’ perceptions of the patients’ ability to summon help and effectively communicate with caregivers. Patients who could summon their nurses and effectively communicate—with or without AAC—had significantly more favorable perceptions than those who could not. This study suggests that AAC can be successfully used in acute care settings to help patients overcome access and communication barriers. Working with other members of the health care team is essential to building a “culture of communication” in acute care settings.

Publication
SIG 12 Augmentative and Alternative Communication
Publication Year
2019

Want to improve sexual health education for girls? Include body image

The University of Kansas

Research suggests body image is related to sexual behaviors, which can impact sexual health across the lifespan. This paper aims to explain the necessity for including body image content in sexuality education to improve outcomes among girls. Our recommendations, supported by theory and empirical research include (a) an assessment of existing curricula; (b) designing new, theoretically-informed curricula; (c) using innovative technology in sex education; (d) rigorous evaluation of existing and new curricula; and (e) revising the National Sexuality Education Standards. These recommendations are discussed after providing the necessary background and rationale.

Publication
American Journal of Sexuality Education
Publication Year
2019

“His Sense of Humor Carried the Day”: Using Humor With Nontraditional Adult Learners

The University of Chicago

None available.

Publication
Adult Learning
Publication Year
2019

Experiences of Economic Abuse in the Community: Listening to Survivor Voices

Washington University in St. Louis

Economic abuse (EA) comprises tactics of intimate partner violence (IPV) which undermine survivors’ economic self-sufficiency and self-efficacy. Evidence is strong that survivors of IPV who have accessed formal services have experienced a wide range of EA tactics. However, there remains a gap in our understanding of EA experiences for survivors who have not sought IPV services. Thus, this article presents the findings of qualitative interviews with a group of women attending community college (n = 20) who screened as having experienced intimate partner violence in their current or most recent relationship but who have never sought formal IPV services. Four themes emerged: (1) economic control, (2) economic exploitation, (3) economic manipulation, and (4) the economics of safety. The voices of these survivors highlight how EA is a critical issue for social workers in IPV service agencies, along with those who interact with IPV survivors in a range of other settings. Empowering social workers to identify the tactics and impacts of EA could lead interventions aimed at supporting survivors and begin undoing the economics of abuse.

Publication
Affilia
Publication Year
2019

Outcomes From a Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trial of Weight Loss Strategies for African American Adolescents With Obesity

Medical University of South Carolina

Background: Minority adolescents are at highest risk for obesity and extreme obesity; yet, there are few clinical trials targeting African American adolescents with obesity. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to develop an adaptive family-based behavioral obesity treatment for African American adolescents using a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial (SMART) design.Methods: Fit Families was a SMART where 181 African American adolescents (67% female) aged 12-17 were first randomized to office-based versus home-based behavioral skills treatment delivered from a Motivational Interviewing foundation. After 3 months, nonresponders to first phase treatment were rerandomized to continued home-based behavioral skills treatment or contingency management with voucher-based reinforcement for adolescent weight loss and for caregiver adherence to the program. All interventions were delivered by community health workers. The primary outcome was treatment retention and percent overweight. Results: All adolescents reduced percent overweight by -3.20%; there were no significant differences in percent overweight based on treatment sequence. Adolescents receiving home-based delivery in Phase 1 and contingency management in Phase 2 completed significantly more sessions than those receiving office-based treatment and continued skills without CM (M = 8.03, SD = 3.24 and M = 6.62, SD = 2.95, respectively). The effect of contingency management was strongest among older and those with lower baseline confidence. Younger adolescents experienced greater weight reductions when receiving continued skills (-4.90% compared with -.02%). Conclusions: Behavioral skills training can be successfully delivered to African American adolescents with obesity and their caregivers by community health workers when using a home-based service model with incentives. More potent interventions are needed to increase reductions in percent overweight and may need to be developmentally tailored for younger and older adolescents.

Publication
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Publication Year
2019

Mentoring Connections: Implementing a Student–Alumni Mentor Program in Social Work

University at Buffalo

A student-alumni mentor program that combines aspects of academic and workplace mentoring was developed and implemented in a school of social work. Foundation-year MSW students (mentees) were matched with school of social work alumni (mentors) in a formal mentoring program. This program was developed to address the needs of MSW students, alumni, and the school of social work by providing students with a professional mentor and fostering ongoing connections and opportunities for involvement for alumni. A model for designing, developing, and implementing this program is presented. Benefits of the program for students, mentors, and the school are discussed as well as lessons learned during implementation.

Publication
Journal of Social Work Education
Publication Year
2019

Enhancing the Impact of Implementation Strategies in Healthcare: A Research Agenda

Washington University

The field of implementation science was developed to better understand the factors that facilitate or impede implementation and generate evidence for implementation strategies. In this article, we briefly review progress in implementation science, and suggest five priorities for enhancing the impact of implementation strategies. Specifically, we suggest the need to: (1) enhance methods for designing and tailoring implementation strategies; (2) specify and test mechanisms of change; (3) conduct more effectiveness research on discrete, multi-faceted, and tailored implementation strategies; (4) increase economic evaluations of implementation strategies; and (5) improve the tracking and reporting of implementation strategies. We believe that pursuing these priorities will advance implementation science by helping us to understand when, where, why, and how implementation strategies improve implementation effectiveness and subsequent health outcomes.

Publication
Public Health
Publication Year
2019