Instructional Support and Academic Skills: Impacts of INSIGHTS in Classrooms With Shy Childrenedit
Research Findings: This study investigated how mean classroom-level shyness scores moderated the impacts of INSIGHTS into Children’s Temperament on instructional support and students’ math and reading skills in kindergarten and 1st-grade classrooms. INSIGHTS is a temperament-based social-emotional learning intervention with teacher, parent, and classroom programs. A total of 22 low-income urban elementary schools, 90 teachers, and 435 children were included in the study. Schools were randomly assigned to INSIGHTS or an attention-control condition. Multilevel modeling demonstrated larger impacts of INSIGHTS on instructional support in 1st-grade classrooms with greater mean classroom-level shyness scores. A further set of multilevel analyses showed larger impacts of INSIGHTS on math skills for students in classrooms with greater mean classroom-level shyness scores. Practice or Policy: Results suggest the importance of considering temperament at the classroom level when deciding how to allocate limited resources to the implementation of temperament-based intervention and/or social-emotional learning programs. Moreover, providing professional development supports to teachers of shy students—who are at risk for poorer instruction and academic skills—should be considered by policymakers and practitioners.