Intimate Partner Violence, Small for Gestational Age Birth and Cigarette Smoking in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring Systemedit
Background: Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) in the perinatal period is associated with obstetric complications, poor maternal mental health, neonatal complications, and increased risk of infant mortality and morbidity. Less is known about how IPV may influence small for gestational age (SGA) birth. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained for 231,081 United States mothers who delivered neonates from 2004 to 2011 and completed the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey 2–9 months after delivery. Weighted descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models were used. Results: IPV in the year before or during pregnancy was related to SGA bivariately (odds ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28, 1.51), and after adjustment for demographic and obstetric factors, this association attenuated after further adjustment for perinatal smoking patterns, (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.06, 95% CI 0.97, 1.15). Compared with nonabused women, women experiencing perinatal IPV were more than twice as likely to smoke before pregnancy (aOR 2.34, 95% CI 2.19, 2.49), and nearly 1.5 times as likely to report sustained smoking into the last 3 months of pregnancy (aOR 1.45, 95% CI 1.32, 1.59). In turn, among prepregnancy smokers, sustained smoking was associated with delivery of a SGA neonate (aOR 1.87, 95% CI 1.72, 2.03), fully attenuating the association of perinatal IPV with SGA. Conclusion: Women who experienced perinatal IPV were significantly more likely to smoke prepregnancy and sustain smoking into the last 3 months of pregnancy. Through behavioral and physiological pathways, smoking cessation may be uniquely challenging for women experiencing IPV, yet critical to address clinically to mitigate risk for SGA.