Risk and protective factors for depressive symptoms among indigenous older adults: Intimate partner violence (IPV) and social supportedit
Research on depression and intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by Indigenous older adults is virtually nonexistent. Given the associations between IPV and depression and their disproportionately high rates among Indigenous peoples in a context of historical oppression, the purpose of this inquiry is to examine how IPV and social support are associated with depressive symptoms for Indigenous older adults. We expand the knowledge base on IPV in later life, which primarily focuses on female samples, by including older men. We predicted: (a) IPV will be positively associated with depressive symptoms and (b) levels of social support will be negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses of data from a sample of Indigenous older adults (N = 233) in the Upper Midwest indicated that physical aggression (but not psychological aggression, sexual coercion, injury, or negotiation) was positively associated with depressive symptoms, whereas social support was negatively associated with depressive symptoms.