Structural and operational factors as determinant of meaningful community participation in sustainable disaster recovery programs: The case of Bangladeshedit
The debate around community participation in post-disaster sustainable recovery is largely neglected in both development discourse and literature on developing countries. However, the philosophy of build back better (BBB) in sustainable disaster recovery (SDR), with roots in the early 90s, is seeing a resurgence, as tracked by the United Nations Office of the Disaster Risk Reduction Sendai Framework of Action (2015–2030). Among the most disaster vulnerable countries globally, Bangladesh has shown remarkable progress in disaster preparedness, response policy, and planning, but the disaster recovery phase remains neglected in national policy and planning. This study aims, using quantitative analyses, to identify the factors that regulate community participation in disaster recovery in governmental and nongovernmental organization programs. This study also provides recommendations to strengthen the local and national strategies for bottom-up participation in a disaster recovery program for sustainability. Findings reveal 11 dominant factors that regulate community participation in sustainable disaster recovery programming (SDRP), and five factors that control decision making participation: disaster management system, leadership decentralization, community capacity building, community resources, and disaster experiences and vulnerability. In addition, the factors associated with the type of community participation fall variably along structural, operational, community, and participant domains. The study findings argue that to promote bottom-up participation, collaboration and integration between recovery programs are needed to improve existing policies or to adopt a new policy.