Extending poly-victimization theory: Differential effects of adolescents’ experiences of victimization on substance use disorder diagnoses upon treatment entry

University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign

Although victimization is a known contributor to the development of substance use disorders, no research has simultaneously examined how characteristics of victimization experienced over time, such as the type of abuse, the presence of poly-victimization, closeness to perpetrator(s), life threat or fear, and negative social reactions to disclosing victimization, cluster into profiles that predict substance use disorders. The aim of the current study is to assess how profiles of victimization and trauma characteristics are associated with substance use disorders and assess potential gender differences. Participants were 20,092 adolescents entering substance use treatment. We used latent class and multi-group latent class analysis to extract classes of victimization and associated characteristics. Emergent classes were used to predicted substance use disorder status at treatment intake. Five classes were extracted: poly-victimization + high harmful trauma characteristics, sexual abuse + negative social reaction and perceived life threat, emotional abuse + trusted perpetrator, physical abuse and low all. Similar classes were found for the multi-group model. In both the overall and female-specific models, the poly-victimization + high harmful trauma characteristics class was more severe than all other classes in terms of opioid use disorder, tobacco use disorder, and dual diagnosis. Other class differences were found across gender. Adolescents entering treatment can be distinguished by their profiles of victimization experiences and associated characteristics, and these profiles evidence different associations with substance use disorder diagnoses. Results point to a need for more nuanced assessment of victimization experiences and gender-specific interventions.

Publication
Child Abuse & Neglect
Publication Year
2019

Racial identity and racial attitudes among white Americans

Northeastern University

None available.

Publication
In, Identities in Everyday Life, J.E. Stets & R.T. Serpe
Publication Year
2019

Burden of hospitalizations over time with invasive aspergillosis in the United States, 2004–2013

University of Illinois at Chicago

Using aggregated data available on the interactive website from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Network (HCUPnet), we examined the annual volume of invasive aspergillosis (IA)-related hospitalizations in the US. This was a population study. Age-adjusted volumes were derived through population incidence calculated using year-specific censal and intercensal US population estimates available from the US Census Bureau. We additionally examined IA as the principal diagnosis and its associated outcomes in patients with ICD-9-CM codes 117.3, 117.9 and 484.6. The age-adjusted number of annual hospitalizations with IA grew from 35,968 cases in 2004 to 51,870 in 2013, a 44.2% overall increase, 4.4% per annum. Regionally, the South contributed the plurality of the cases (40%), and the Northeast the fewest (17%). While IA as principal diagnosis dropped, from 14.4 to 9.3%, mortality rose from 10 to 12%. Despite mean hospital length of stay decreasing from 13.3 (standard error [SE] 0.07) to 11.5 (SE 0.6) days, the corresponding mean hospital charges rose from $71,164 (SE $5248) to $123,005 (SE $9738). The aggregate US inflation-adjusted hospital charges for IA principal diagnosis rose from $436,074,445 in 2004 to $592,358,369 in 2013. Given the substantial volume and rate of growth in IA-related hospitalizations in the US between 2004 and 2013, an increase in mortality and high costs, IA may represent an attractive target for intensive preventive efforts.

Publication
BMC Public Health
Publication Year
2019

Advanced Practice Registered Nurses’ Quality Improvement Efforts to Reduce Antipsychotic Use in Nursing Homes

University of Missouri, Columbia

None available.

Publication
Journal of Nursing Care Quality
Publication Year
2019

Ethical Considerations in Chronic Brain Injury

University of Houston

A growing number of individuals are living with chronic traumatic brain injury. As these individuals and their families attempt to reintegrate into their communities, several ethical questions arise for clinicians and researchers. These include issues around alignment of perspectives and priorities, as well as responsibilities for ongoing treatment, education, community outreach, and research. An action plan for addressing these questions is outlined.

Publication
Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Publication Year
2019

Disparities in Nursing Home Use and Quality Among African American, Hispanic, and White Medicare Residents With Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias

Miami University of Ohio

This article examines differences in nursing home use and quality among Medicare beneficiaries, in both Medicare Advantage and fee-for-service, newly admitted to nursing homes with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD). Retrospective, national, population-based study of Medicare residents newly admitted to nursing homes with ADRD by race and ethnic group. Our analytic sample included 1,302,099 nursing home residents-268,181 with a diagnosis of ADRD-in 13,532 nursing homes from 2014. We found that a larger share of Hispanic Medicare residents that are admitted to nursing homes have ADRD compared with African American and White beneficiaries. Both Hispanics and African Americans with ADRD received care in segregated nursing homes with fewer resources and lower quality of care compared with White residents. These results have implications for targeted efforts to achieve health care equity and quality improvement efforts among nursing homes that serve minority patients.

Publication
Journal of Aging and Health
Publication Year
2019

Measuring success: Within and cross-domain predictors of academic and social trajectories in elementary school

University of Iowa

Children’s skill levels in language, mathematics, literacy, self-regulation, and social–emotional adjustment at kindergarten entry are believed to play an important role in determining school success through their long-term association with academic and social skills in primary and secondary education. Hence, children’s school readiness is a national priority. To date, there is some evidence that specific individual school readiness skills relate to specific outcomes, but much of that research has not addressed concerns regarding generalization due to the high levels of correlations among the school readiness skills. The interrelationships among school readiness domains and patterns of skill acquisition – during the first three years of primary education in which basic skills are the focus and in the later years of primary or secondary education when higher-order skills are the focus – have not been explored adequately. Using the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development dataset (n = 1364), this research conducted growth curve analyses to examine a comprehensive set of readiness indicators in kindergarten and identify which domains were stronger predictors of academic and social trajectories through grade 3 and from grades 3 to 5. Results highlight the importance of examining multiple school readiness domains simultaneously rather than separately, and moving beyond outcomes (skill levels) at a particular grade to consider which kindergarten skills predict gains over time (skill acquisition) both within- and across-domains. Empirical and methodological implications are considered for educational research, policy, and practice.

Publication
Early childhood Research Quarterly
Publication Year
2019

Association of body weight perception and unhealthy weight control behaviors in adolescence

The University of Kansas

The purpose of this article was to determine how body weight perception is related to weight control behaviors among a nationally representative sample of adolescents. Data came from the CDC’s nationally representative Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 2013 (n = 13,857). Mean age was 16.2 years old. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to analyze the relationship between body weight perception (very underweight, slightly underweight, about the right weight, slightly overweight, and very overweight) and both unhealthy weight control behaviors individually (fasting, taking diet pills, and vomiting or taking laxatives) and any unhealthy weight control behavior, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, and BMI percentile and stratifying by gender. 13.35% of the sample reported fasting, 5.13% reported taking diet pills, and 4.20% reported vomiting or taking laxatives. Among girls, there was a significant positive association between feeling very underweight compared to about the right weight and all unhealthy weight control behaviors. In addition, feeling slightly overweight and very overweight increased the odds of fasting behavior or any unhealthy weight control behavior. Among boys, feeling very underweight, slightly overweight, and very overweight was associated with fasting, taking diet pills, vomiting or using laxatives, and any unhealthy weight control behavior. Both boys and girls engage in unhealthy weight control behaviors at a high rate, and the association with feeling under- and overweight overall increases the odds of these unhealthy behaviors. Health promotion efforts should focus on encouraging a healthy, normal body weight perception among adolescents in an effort to reduce unhealthy weight control behaviors.

Publication
Children and Youth Services Review
Publication Year
2019

Visualizing Perceived Enablers of and Barriers to Healthy Eating by Youth in Rural El Salvador

The Pennsylvania State University

Objective: To explore the perceived environmental enablers for and barriers to healthy eating among rural Salvadoran youth. Methods: A photovoice activity was implemented at a grade school located in a rural region of northeastern El Salvador. Results: Nine female and 8 male youth aged 8–12 years participated. A total of 116 photos were generated for thematic analysis. Photos and descriptions from youth revealed an overall theme of ambiguity in healthy eating across multiple environments. This theme of ambiguity was interwoven throughout 2 subthemes: (1) links between food and health, and (2) the juxtaposition of globalized foodscapes and natural resources. Conclusions and Implications: Photos and descriptions from youth illustrated the murky distinctions between healthful and less healthful foods embedded within daily encounters across multiple environments. To further an understanding of factors that promote or hinder healthy eating in youth, future research might incorporate methods that capture the ways in which youth conceptualize healthy eating, as well as their contributions to healthy eating.

Publication
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Publication Year
2019

On the fringes: How youth experiencing homelessness conceptualize social and economic inequality–A Photovoice study

University of Denver

This study used Photovoice methods with young adults experiencing homelessness to collaboratively identify issues that are of greatest importance in an open‐ended, exploratory, and inductive manner. Participants selected two concepts to focus their inquiry: freedom and prosperity. Within these concepts, participants discussed nature as a source of inspiration, a desire to better themselves and to change their situations, and passion for contributing to social change by exposing economic inequality and raising awareness about homelessness. These findings demonstrate that young people are keenly aware of the structural and macro‐level factors that have contributed to their risks of social exclusion and marginalization.

Publication
Journal of Community Psychology
Publication Year
2019

Towards a Biopsychosocial Psychiatry

Yale University

Objective: Constructing a meaningful biopsychosocial model for the mental health field has been extremely elusive. Identifying the linkages between the biological, psychological and social domains has been especially daunting. There has been important progress in clarifying general correlations of certain social factors related to the mental health of individuals and in developing training programs to recognize these social factors. However, efforts have usually focused on broad correlations and there have been serious deficiencies in developing methods for understanding and dealing with the specific processes happening at the psychological and social interface. For this reason, it would be important to be able to do such things as for example have a means to clarify the processes that connect the individual’s mental health and its specific interactions with his or her social class. In this report we suggest two approaches that can contribute to solving this problem. Methods: We will describe approaches from the fields of anthropology and microhistory that link the specific experiences of the individual and the nature of the social context in which he or she finds him/herself. Results: Careful application of certain anthropological and history study methods that “take seriously” the specific interactions between the environmental situation and the individual can provide approaches to improved understanding of the relevant variables and the causal links between “psycho” and “social” in the biopsychosocial model. Conclusions: Teaching and applying these principles in treatment and research can contribute to a more effective model of biopsychosocial interactions in the mental health field.

Publication
Psychiatry
Publication Year
2019

Standardizing Biases: Selection Devices and the Quantification of Race

University of Michigan

Racial inequality persists despite major advances in formal, legal equality. Scholars and policymakers argue that individual biases (both explicit and implicit) combine with subjective organizational decision-making practices to perpetuate racial inequality. The standardization of decision making offers a potential solution, promising to eliminate the subjectivity that biases consequential decisions. We ask, under what conditions may standardization reduce racial inequality? Drawing on research in science studies and law and society, we argue that standardization must be understood as a heterogeneous practice capable of producing very different outcomes depending on the details of the standard and the organizational infrastructure surrounding its use. We compare selection devices—simple quantified tools for making allocation decisions—in undergraduate admissions and child welfare to highlight the complex relationships between race and standardization. Child welfare agencies adopted a colorblind actuarial device that attempted to predict which children were most at risk and then make decisions based on those predictions. In contrast, the University of Michigan’s points system explicitly considered and valued race, with the goal of increasing minority student enrollments in the context of promoting student body diversity. Comparing these cases demonstrates how actuarial standardization practices, including those adopted with the intention of reducing racial inequality, tend to reinforce an unequal status quo by ideologically reconfiguring mutable social structures into immutable individual risk factors. In contrast, nonactuarial practices that explicitly promote racial equality are vulnerable to political challenges as they violate norms of colorblindness and cannot be defended in terms of their predictive validity.

Publication
Sociology of Race and Ethnicity
Publication Year
2019

MindStrong and Emerge Models: Multidisciplinary, Feasible, Effective, and Sustainable

University of Chicago

Compared to younger youth and middle-aged and older adults, older youth and young adults (16–25 year olds) are more likely to experience serious mental health challenges, including schizophrenia, bipolar, and major depressive disorders.1 These young people are at increased risk for high school dropout (or “pushout”), unemployment and under-employment, poverty, housing instability, homelessness, justice involvement, and suicide.2 They are also least likely to utilize mental health services, which tend to feel stigmatizing, incongruent, and ineffective to young people. Accessible, attractive, and effective services spanning both child and adult sectors are needed to engage this unique population. To address these challenges, Thresholds, the largest community mental health provider in Illinois, successfully developed and implemented two multidisciplinary sister teams serving young people within a Medicaid and commercial fee-for-service insurance billing environment.

Publication
Research and Training Center for Pathways to Positive Futures
Publication Year
2019

Is TANF Truly Accessible and Helpful? Victims’ Experiences With Domestic Violence Screening Under the Family Violence Option

University of Georgia

This study explores the experiences of domestic violence victims with their Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) applications and the subsequent assessment processes in the state of Georgia, focusing on the conditions related to their disclosure of abuse and their postdisclosure experiences. This study interviewed five victims of domestic violence, four local victim advocates, and three nationally recognized experts regarding domestic violence screening in TANF programs using semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using grounded theory techniques. The findings showed that the participants perceived TANF application and assessment processes as (i) inaccessible and (ii) unhelpful, lacking special considerations for domestic violence victims. Conditions related to victims’ disclosure of abuse included (i) safety concerns, (ii) working relationships between local victim support agencies and TANF offices, (iii) a safe environment to disclose abuse, and (iv) advocacy. After disclosing their domestic violence history to their TANF caseworkers, the victims reported experiencing (i) a lack of continued assessment and support related to domestic violence and (ii) a compulsion to make final decisions regarding continuing or discontinuing their TANF applications. The current study contributes to the field of social work by providing a better understanding of how and to what extent victims of domestic violence are actually supported within the TANF system and by yielding practice and policy implications for effectively assisting the victims of domestic violence within the TANF system.

Publication
Affilia
Publication Year
2019

“Officers Are Doing the Best They Can”: Concerns Around Law Enforcement and Social Service Collaboration in Service Provision to Sex Workers

The University of Chicago

Frontline service providers are often tasked with providing services to criminalized populations, including individuals involved in the sex trade. These providers have been working to transform services to this population, proposing what they believe to be socially just responses in helping individuals in the sex trade transition from “criminals” to a “victims.” While frontline service providers have been advocating for trauma-informed and compassionate responses to working with individuals involved in the sex trade, they regularly temper this work with collaboration with law enforcement, propagating carceral (punishment-oriented) logics in order to “protect” vulnerable clients. This qualitative study, completed in a Midwestern U.S. state, used interviews with 30 frontline service providers who work with individuals in the sex trade to understand service providers’ perceptions around their work with this population, and how this shapes collaborations with law enforcement. Findings reveal that as most frontline service providers assume that individual trauma and drug use are present in the sex trade, these individual characteristics have legitimated paternalistic service responses provided in collaboration with law enforcement. However, a minority of frontline service providers denounce these collaborations as harmful to their clients, revealing that responses to law enforcement are not homogenous across service providers. I conclude by discussing what these law enforcement–social service collaborations mean for the social work profession and provide a discussion of alternative methods to work with individuals in the sex trade.

Publication
Affilia
Publication Year
2019

Measuring the Psychological Impacts of Prison-Based Dog Training Programs and In-Prison Outcomes for Inmates

University of Denver

As interest grows in programs that improve prison inmates’ behavior and psychosocial well-being, any such interventions must be rigorously examined and their underlying mechanisms for change must be understood. This pilot study examined the use of prison-based dog training programs across Washington State Department of Corrections facilities for their impacts on inmates’ infraction rates. The study also compared levels of empathy, self-efficacy, and anxiety between program participants and nonparticipants. Findings indicated that prison dog program participants’ infraction rates improved and that participants had lower levels of anxiety than nonparticipants.

Publication
The Prison Journal
Publication Year
2019

Community-based participatory design for research that impacts the lives of transgender and/or gender-diverse autistic and/or neurodiverse people

Children’s National Medical Center

Objective: Research addressing the co-occurrence of autism (and/or neurodiversity) and gender-diversity (A/ND-GD) has been conducted largely without the perspectives and voices of the A/ND-GD community. Including A/ND-GD community advocates as research partners may be a critical next step for advancing research initiatives on the co-occurrence given the apparent complexity and alterity of the A/ND-GD experience. Method: Consistent with the community-based participatory research (CBPR) model we propose herein, our authorship team includes a partnership between clinician researchers and diverse A/ND-GD community collaborators. Multiple facets of the A/ND-GD lived experience are examined, including through narratives provided by our A/ND-GD community partners. Results: Based on our experience conducting A/ND-GD-related research and our lived experience as A/ND-GD self-advocates, we highlight challenges in this line of research, including risks of conducting studies without the involvement of the A/ND-GD community. And given that many A/ND-GD youth present with gender-related urgency during the teen years, we provide a developmental framework for how CBPR-informed methods may enrich our understanding of the care needs of these young people and provide context for the apparent heterogeneity in their gender needs and trajectories over time. Conclusions: Integrating CBPR methodologies in A/ND-GD research initiatives has the potential to optimize the relevance of the research questions asked and the interpretation and contextualization of study findings.

Publication
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology
Publication Year
2019

Personality-based posttraumatic stress disorder subtypes in young adults

University at Buffalo, State University of New York

The symptom presentation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) varies widely between individuals, which can complicate both diagnosis and treatment. Personality may help to explain this variability, and personality-based subtypes of PTSD (externalizing, internalizing, and simple; Miller, Greif, & Smith, 2003) have been identified for this purpose. Yet, empirical tests of these subtypes have been limited, focusing largely on older samples with combat trauma or other homogenous trauma types. Our study examined PTSD subtypes in two samples of young adults with heterogeneous trauma exposure using cluster analyses. We tested for subtype-based heterogeneity in traumatic response (i.e., PTSD symptomatology). Results revealed that, across the two samples, externalizing (low conscientiousness and moderate neuroticism), internalizing (low extraversion and moderate neuroticism), and simple (low neuroticism) personality-based subtypes emerged, consistent with the existing literature. Subtype-based differences in PTSD symptom severity also were observed, with the simple subtype generally exhibiting less severe PTSD symptomatology than internalizing and externalizing subtypes. However, the subtypes did not differ in terms in number or type (interpersonal vs. noninterpersonal) of traumatic experiences. Findings support PTSD subtypes and their relevance for posttraumatic response, particularly PTSD severity, in young adults with a variety of trauma types.

Publication
Traumatology
Publication Year
2019

Methodological and Ethical Considerations in Research With Immigrant and Refugee Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence

University of Iowa

To promote safe and positive health outcomes by utilizing culturally relevant evidence-based interventions for immigrant and refugee women survivors of intimate partner violence, their active participation in research is critical. With 43.6 million immigrants and refugees living in the United States, there is a need for research studies to eliminate health disparities in these populations. However, barriers to recruiting and retaining these populations in research prevent the provision of quality and culturally informed services to meet their needs. The aim of this article is to discuss the recruitment and retention strategies employed and analyze the methodological and ethical challenges in the context of the weWomen Study. The use of a multifaceted approach informed by best practices maximized recruitment efforts and active participation that generated high numbers of immigrant and refugee women participants. The study also substantiated the need for more community-based participatory approaches to engage community members in the development of culturally appropriate approaches that instill a sense of ownership over the research process. Active research participation of immigrant and refugee survivors will help investigators understand their unique needs and facilitate the implementation of targeted evidence-based interventions.

Publication
Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Publication Year
2019

When Disney came to Broadway: Assessing the impact of corporatization in an art world

Princeton University

This article explores the commercial and creative impact of diversified corporations on artistic production. Drawing on original data from 70 seasons of Broadway musical theater, I examine the relationship between measures of corporate involvement in theater production and measures of content innovation and success. Contrary to my hypotheses, I find that musicals produced by diversified corporations are not systematically less innovative than musicals produced solely by non-corporate producers, as levels of innovation vary across measures. However, average levels of innovation on Broadway have declined over time due, in part, to the growing number of diversified-corporate musicals in the market. With respect to success, I observe two systematic trends. First, relative to non-corporate musicals, diversified-corporate musicals achieved equivalent to exceptional success as they were establishing themselves in Broadway’s theater market. Second, the relative success of diversified-corporate musicals declined as their prevalence in Broadway’s theater market grew. Together, these findings highlight the non-trivial ways in which an artistic market can change when corporate involvement in artistic production grows.

Publication
Poetics
Publication Year
2019