Measuring the ‘dose’ of person‐centred care in aged care: Development of staff and family questionnaires
Aims: To develop a theoretically and psychometrically sound instrument to measure the ‘dose’ of person‐centred care practice in long‐term care. Background: Although person‐centred care has been adopted for long‐term care across the world, there is a lack of theory‐based instruments to measure its impact. Two questionnaires were developed to measure person‐centred care from the perspectives of staff and family based on current person‐centred care frameworks: Kitwood, Nolan, and Eden Alternative. Methods: Phase I: literature review and focus groups identified potential items for the questionnaires. Phase II: academic experts, local staff, and family members of residents assessed content validity. Phase III: psychometric testing. Results: A 34‐item staff questionnaire (Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.942) with two factors “Making person‐centredness real” and “Making the environment meaningful for life and work”. A 30‐item family questionnaire (Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.947), with three factors “Staff care about what is meaningful to my family member”, “Staff know and respect my family member”, and “We are all part of a family”. The factors did not directly reflect the theoretical constructs from Kitwood’s and Nolan’s work. Conclusion: Two instruments, capturing the ‘dose’ or active practice of delivering person‐centred care, have demonstrated sound psychometric properties. The study contributes to understanding the theoretical components of person‐centred care. Impact: The study addressed the lack of robust tools to measure how much person‐centred care is taking place in aged care facilities. Staff and family questionnaires were produced based on strong theoretical foundations combining concepts of prominent person‐centred theories and rigorous psychometric testing. The instruments can be used to determine if person‐centred care makes a difference, to compare if person‐centred care changes or develops over time or between facilities. Ultimately residents, families, and staff will benefit from the ability to measure how much person‐centred care residents receive.
“Let Me Be Bill-free”: Consumer Debt in the Shadow of Incarceration
Low-income U.S. households are increasingly burdened by unaffordable debt, with profound long-term economic and health consequences. Households of color are disproportionately negatively affected. This article examines the nexus of this rising indebtedness and mass incarceration through the experiences of a particularly marginalized group, people with mental illness. Drawing on qualitative research with 31 individuals with mental illness and recent incarceration in the city of New Haven, Connecticut, we show how carceral institutions and predatory financial practices intersect to create complex entanglements for poor and vulnerable people. While a growing body of scholarship focuses on criminal justice fines and fees, we highlight other types of debt that add to the overall burden, describing how incarceration deepens people’s existing debts of poverty and adds new debts from in-prison costs and identity theft. After release, those debts complicate the search for housing, employment, and financial stability, leading to further debt, stressing social relationships and reproducing social and economic inequality. The experiences of people with mental illness illuminates structures of marginalization and disadvantage that affect many others involved with the criminal justice system.
The measurement of interpersonal interactions with continuous spatiotemporal data: Application to a study of the effects of resource competition on racial group interactions
We describe a sequential qualitative ➔ quantitative mixed-method procedure used to construct conceptually grounded quantitative metrics of interpersonal behavior from continuous spatiotemporal data. Metrics were developed from data collected during an experiment in which racially diverse participants interacted with self-resembling avatars at social events hosted in the virtual world Second Life. In the qualitative stage, the researchers conceptualized four distinct patterns of movement from overhead video recreations of participants interacting during the social events. In the quantitative stage, these patterns of movement were operationalized into metrics to reflect each type of observed interpersonal behavior. The metrics were normalized through a series of transformations, and construct validity was assessed through correlations with self-report measures of intergroup behavior. Finally, the metrics were applied to an analysis of the virtual-world study examining the influence of resource competition on racial group interactions. The findings contribute to our understanding of the influence of resource competition on Blacks’, Asians’, and Whites’ group dynamics. Applications of these metrics for the future of the psychological study of interpersonal behavior are discussed.
Intimate partner violence victimization among college students with disabilities: Prevalence, help-seeking, and the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and intimate partner violence victimization
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health issue. Almost one third of college students in the U.S. experience IPV victimization. However, existing studies have focused primarily on college students without disabilities with little to no attention to college students with disabilities. In addition, few studies have explored the patterns of help-seeking and the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and IPV victimization among college students with disabilities. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of IPV victimization, ACEs, and help-seeking, the patterns of survivors’ help-seeking behaviors, and the relationship between ACEs and IPV victimization. Data from a cross-sectional online survey, which was conducted with samples from six universities in the U.S. and Canada (N = 3,308) between March 2016 and June 2017, were used. Descriptive bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed. The results show clear evidence that compared to college students without disabilities, college students with disabilities experienced higher rates of IPV victimization and ACEs. In addition, 42% of the survivors with disabilities sought some sort of support and they sought more formal support than their counterparts without disabilities. Furthermore, the associations between ACEs and IPV victimization among college students with disabilities were substantial after controlling for other risk factors. Specific, targeted university policies and programs as well as increased investment in programs that prevent ACEs are urgently needed to reduce violence against college students with disabilities.
Youth involvement in food preparation practices at home: A multi-method exploration of Latinx youth experiences and perspectives
Youth are frequently involved in preparing meals for themselves and family members. Latinx youth may be more likely to be involved in food preparation compared to youth from other ethnic backgrounds. Involvement in food preparation has been linked to various positive health outcomes, such as better diet quality and higher self-esteem. However, little is known about how youth come to be involved in food preparation at home. In addition, previous research has failed to explore the perspectives of youth regarding their role in food preparation. The objective of the present study was to qualitatively explore the food preparation practices of youth from im/migrant Latinx families. A multi-method study consisting of participatory focus groups embedded within an ethnographic fieldwork period was conducted. Participatory focus groups with Latinx youth featured inclusive discussions and participatory techniques, such as draw-write-tell activities, photo-elicitation activities, a decision-making chart activity, and listing activities. Twenty-three youths ages 9–17 years participated in this study. A thematic analysis uncovered themes related to gender norm expectations, specific cooking skills bound by age and food type, and food preparation as an important household contribution. Findings illustrate the diverse experiences of Latinx youth in food preparation. The investigation of youth involvement in food preparation in the home environment may identify potential targets for obesity prevention and dietary health promotion.
Enhancing vocational training in corrections: A type 1 hybrid randomized controlled trial protocol for evaluating virtual reality job interview training among returning citizens preparing for community re-entry
The Michigan Department of Corrections operates the Vocational Villages, which are skilled trades training programs set within prisons that include an immersive educational community using virtual reality, robotics, and other technologies to develop employable trades. An enhancement to the Vocational Villages could be an evidence-based job interview training component. Recently, we conducted a series of randomized controlled trials funded by the National Institute of Mental Health to evaluate the efficacy of virtual reality job interview training (VR-JIT). The results suggested that the use of VR-JIT was associated with improved job interview skills and a greater likelihood of receiving job offers within 6 months. The primary goal of this study is to report on the protocol we developed to evaluate the effectiveness of VR-JIT at improving interview skills, increasing job offers, and reducing recidivism when delivered within two Vocational Villages via a randomized controlled trial and process evaluation. Our aims are to: (1) evaluate whether services-as-usual in combination with VR-JIT, compared to services-as-usual alone, enhances employment outcomes and reduces recidivism among returning citizens enrolled in the Vocational Villages; (2) evaluate mechanisms of employment outcomes and explore mechanisms of recidivism; and (3) conduct a multilevel, mixed-method process evaluation of VR-JIT implementation to assess the adoptability, acceptability, scalability, feasibility, and implementation costs of VR-JIT.
Consensus Parameter: Research Methodologies to Evaluate Neurodevelopmental Effects of Pubertal Suppression in Transgender Youth
Purpose: Pubertal suppression is standard of care for early pubertal transgender youth to prevent the development of undesired and distressing secondary sex characteristics incongruent with gender identity. Preliminary evidence suggests pubertal suppression improves mental health functioning. Given the widespread changes in brain and cognition that occur during puberty, a critical question is whether this treatment impacts neurodevelopment. Methods: A Delphi consensus procedure engaged 24 international experts in neurodevelopment, gender development, puberty/adolescence, neuroendocrinology, and statistics/psychometrics to identify priority research methodologies to address the empirical question: is pubertal suppression treatment associated with real-world neurocognitive sequelae? Recommended study approaches reaching 80% consensus were included in the consensus parameter. Results: The Delphi procedure identified 160 initial expert recommendations, 44 of which ultimately achieved consensus. Consensus study design elements include the following: a minimum of three measurement time points, pubertal staging at baseline, statistical modeling of sex in analyses, use of analytic approaches that account for heterogeneity, and use of multiple comparison groups to minimize the limitations of any one group. Consensus study comparison groups include untreated transgender youth matched on pubertal stage, cisgender (i.e., gender congruent) youth matched on pubertal stage, and an independent sample from a large-scale youth development database. The consensus domains for assessment includes: mental health, executive function/cognitive control, and social awareness/functioning. Conclusion: An international interdisciplinary team of experts achieved consensus around primary methods and domains for assessing neurodevelopmental effects (i.e., benefits and/or difficulties) of pubertal suppression treatment in transgender youth.
Occupational therapists need to be involved in developing and evaluating technological solutions to support remote working
COVID-19 has led to increased remote working for occupational therapists and other health and social care professionals. Despite the rapid move to video consultations during COVID, the impact and implications of remote working still need consideration. Prior to COVID, digitisation was already recognised as essential, given the demands on health and social care (NHS, 2019). The National Health Service (NHS) long-term plan pledged to make digitally enabled care mainstream within the next decade (NHS, 2019). Technological innovation has the potential to improve care quality and cost savings across health and social care (Maguire et al., 2018). Allied health professionals (AHPs) have been urged to lead digital health innovations and use new technologies for patient benefit (NHS England, 2019). Video consultations had already emerged as a service model, with potential for improved efficiency and patient experiences (Greenhalgh et al., 2018a).
Sleep coach intervention for teens with type 1 diabetes: Randomized pilot study
Teens with type 1 diabetes (T1D) experience increased sleep disturbances, which have been linked to problems with adherence and glycemic control. As such, sleep represents a novel target to improve outcomes in teens. To evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a sleep-promoting intervention in teens with T1D. Teens aged 13 to 17 with T1D (n = 39) completed measures of sleep quality and diabetes management and wore actigraphs to obtain an objective measure of sleep. Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) was collected from medical records. Teens were randomized to Usual Care (n = 19) or the Sleep Coach intervention (n = 20). Teens in the Sleep Coach group received educational materials on healthy sleep habits and completed three individual telephone sessions. Follow-up data were collected at 3 months, including exit interviews with teens and parents. Feasibility of the study was excellent; 80% of teens in the Sleep Coach group completed all three sessions, and retention was high (90%). Based on actigraphy data, a significant improvement in sleep efficiency and sleep duration was observed (48-minute increase) among teens randomized to the Sleep Coach intervention, and teens in the control group were 7.5 times more likely to report poor sleep quality after 3 months than intervention participants. No change in HbA1c was observed. The Sleep Coach intervention for teens with T1D is a feasible and acceptable program that increased sleep duration and improved sleep quality for this high-risk population.
The mediating role of child-teacher dependency in the association between early mother-child attachment and behavior problems in middle childhood
This study examines child-teacher dependency in preschool as a pathway through which mother-child attachment is associated with children’s behavior problems across middle childhood. Data include direct assessments of attachment security and styles, teacher reports of child-teacher dependency, and maternal reports of behavior problems from the NICHD SECCYD (N = 769 children). Children with more secure attachments at 24 months were less likely to exhibit child-teacher dependency at 54 months. Children with ambivalent, controlling, or insecure/other attachments at 36 months had higher levels of child-teacher dependency at 54 months. Results from multi-level models showed that child-teacher dependency at 54 months was associated with higher levels of internalizing, but not externalizing, behavior problems across middle childhood. Child-teacher dependency partially mediated the association between insecure/other mother-child attachment and internalizing behaviors in middle childhood. Supporting preschool teachers to reduce child-teacher dependency may help ameliorate risk for internalizing behaviors posed by insecure/other attachment.
State Politics, Race, and “Welfare” as a Funding Stream: Cash Assistance Spending Under Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
Race and racism have long been identified as influences on state cash assistance policy under Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF; “welfare” in the United States) and its predecessor programs. TANF is structured as a flexible block grant with a state contribution requirement and cash benefits now account for only about one‐quarter of all program expenditures. Both proportion of effort devoted to cash assistance and change over time since passage of the 1996 welfare reform law vary by state. In this article, I consider the relationship between prevalence of negative stereotyping of blacks among whites in a state and emphasis on cash assistance as a TANF expenditure priority from 1998 to 2013. I find that prevalence of stereotyping of blacks among whites is related to TANF cash assistance effort, while evidence that it is related to the rate of decline in cash assistance over time is ambiguous.
Academic Safety Planning: Intervening to Improve the Educational Outcomes of Collegiate Survivors of Interpersonal Violence
Demonstrated impacts of intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual assault (SA) for college students include negative outcomes related to mental, physical, emotional, and academic well-being. As a result of increasing awareness of the long-standing epidemic of IPV and SA on college campuses, Institutions of Higher Education (IHEs) are expanding the services provided to survivors of IPV and SA, including campus-based advocacy services that are adapted from community models. Like community advocacy, campusbased advocacy services focus on empowerment, support, resource provision, and addressing safety needs. However, the unique context of higher education produces specific student-centered needs, including an increased focus on educational goals, academic accommodations, and safety planning. The current study seeks to shed new light on the specific foci and tasks of advocacy in the context of IHEs, related to what we call “academic safety planning,” and to highlight the experience of student service recipients utilizing these forms of advocacy. Thematic analysis of 48 qualitative interviews with advocates (n = 23) and service users (n = 25) from five programs at three universities was used to discover practices applied by campus-based advocates and to understand student-survivor needs and preferences within academic safety planning. Findings reveal the core components of academic safety planning, which are: (a) Advocating for emotional and physical safety in the university context, (b) Assessing and identifying needed academic accommodations, and (c) rebuilding connections and institutional trust at school. These interviews reveal that academic safety planning has the potential to enhance the academic outcomes of survivors, which in turn could lead to important improvements in long-term personal safety, wellbeing, and economic security for student-survivors.
Individual and Social Network Correlates of Sexual Health Communication Among Youth Experiencing Homelessness
Despite the potential for sexual health communication to be leveraged for HIV prevention among youth experiencing homelessness (YEH), there has yet to be a rigorous examination of individual and network or relational characteristics associated with sexual health communication in this group of young people. Cross-sectional survey and social network data from 1014 YEH aged 14–25 recruited in Los Angeles, California, were utilized to assess individual and network or relational characteristics associated with communication regarding condom use and HIV testing among YEH. Results suggest that social networks are key to understanding sexual health communication; YEH’s engagement in sexual health communication was significantly related to the composition of their networks. To increase testing and decrease new HIV cases, a prudent strategy would be to train existing social network members (e.g., staff members, home-based peers, or partners) as agents of change in naturally occurring social networks of YEH.
Using the Life Story Book With Mentally Alert Residents of Nursing Homes
Depression and lack of meaning in life (MIL) are common among residents of nursing homes (NHs) and contribute to a reduction in overall health and well-being. Life Story Book (LSB), a reminiscence intervention, is designed to provide a person with the opportunity to review their past and capture their life stories and photographs into a book. LSB has demonstrated positive outcomes for residents of NHs with dementia, yet little is known for residents without dementia. A switching replication design was used to examine the effects of LSB among 21 mentally alert residents from two NHs (NH-A and NH-B) in Houston, Texas. Participants in NH-A received three weeks of the LSB intervention, while NH-B received three weeks of care-as-usual; the intervention was then switched. The GDS-12R and the MIL questionnaire (MLQ) were used to measure depressive symptoms and MIL respectively. Participants from NH-A (n =11) and NH-B (n = 10) had a mean age of 75 years (SD =11.34); 81% female; 52% non-Hispanic white and 33% African American. Results from a one-way MANCOVA found no statistically significant difference on the GDS-12R and MLQ (F(3, 14) = 2.50, p = .102; Wilks’ Lambda = .652; η2 = .35). Further analyses comparing the pre-intervention and post-intervention scores for the entire sample (N =21) found a significant reduction in depressive symptoms (M = 2.67; SD = 2.52) and (M =1.67, SD = 2.29); (t (20) = 2.21, p = 0.039). The potential benefits of LSB for mentally alert residents of NHs warrants further research.
Hate Knows No Boundaries: Online Hate in Six Nations
This paper examines cross-national commonalities and differences in online hate speech content, exposure, and emotional reaction. Using online surveys from 18 to 25-year-old respondents in six countries, we find a majority of respondents were exposed to online hate in the preceding 3 months. Commonalities across countries are the platform where the respondents were exposed and how they arrived at such content. Unique national cultures of hate speech also exist, including the common targets and respondents’ emotional reactions. A majority of respondents report feeling angry, sad, or ashamed, but most worrisome may be the substantial numbers who report feelings of hatred or pride after seeing online hate. Given the potential for repeated exposure and the recent increase in hate crimes in the US. and Europe, this finding should serve as a reminder of the dangers of online hate and its potential link to offline violence.
Modifiable risk and protective factors for anxiety disorders among adults: A systematic review
Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in the general population and associated with high rates of impairment and disability. This burden highlights the need to identify risk factors that individuals can modify without professional intervention. A systematic review was conducted to identify studies that examined modifiable risk and protective factors for anxiety disorders among adults in the general population. Searches were conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO and MEDLINE using medical subject headings and text words related to risk factors, protective factors, and each anxiety disorder. Screening, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed by three study authors. Modifiable risk and protective factors from 19 studies across seven countries were identified. Risk factors identified included cigarette smoking, alcohol use, cannabis use, negative appraisals of life events, avoidance, and occupational factors. Protective factors included social support, coping, and physical activity. Cigarette smoking was the most studied risk factor. Support was found for cigarette smoking as a risk factor for agoraphobia and panic disorder. Mixed results were found for generalized anxiety disorder and specific phobia. Across disorders, smoking frequency was associated with greater risk. Results indicate an important gap in the literature in that few studies have examined modifiable risk factors for anxiety disorders.
Accountable policing: Policies to advance the personal safety of Black boys and young men (Race and Opportunity Lab Brief Report No. 3)
The policies and practices that perpetuate the continual, unjust murder of Black males by the nation’s law-enforcement professionals have gone unchanged for far too long. While this pattern is most dangerous for Black men (Ross, 2015), the consequences of this system reach communities far and wide. HomeGrown StL is issuing this Brief Report to provide local, state, and federal policymakers with concrete, evidence-based policy recommendations for building an equitable, transparent, and ac- countable public-safety approach that will serve and protect all U.S. residents, not just a select few. Our review of local, state, and federal law-enforcement policies demonstrates that, although a handful have been implemented to reduce police violence, evidence-based solutions have been neglected in favor of ineffective approaches or of complete inaction. It is time for policymakers, especially leaders in the St. Louis region, to acknowledge their responsibility for putting an end to this abhorrent injustice.
System involvement among young adults experiencing homelessness: Characteristics of four system-involved subgroups and relationship to risk outcomes
Young adults experiencing homelessness (YAEH) have been found to have high rates of prior involvement with foster care and juvenile justice, but little is known about whether YAEH differ in their risk behaviors based on exposure to different systems. This study used a dataset of 1426 YAEH from 7 different US cities to examine the historical risk and resilience characteristics of those involved in foster care alone, juvenile justice alone, both systems (dual status), and no system involvement. Logistic regression was used to examine whether different types of childhood system involvement predicted risk behaviors in young adulthood including substance use, trade sex, suicide attempts, unplanned pregnancy, and involvement in the adult criminal justice system. Notably, 57% of youth had been exposed to one of the systems – 20% foster care only (n = 291), 18% juvenile justice only (n = 254), and 18% dual status (n = 261). YAEH without a history of system involvement had significantly lower childhood trauma scores and lower rates of lifetime mental health diagnoses compared to all three system involved groups, with dual status youth having the highest rates of both. In relation to risk outcomes, youth with dual status histories had higher odds of trading sex and those with juvenile justice involvement, either alone or as dual status, had higher odds of being arrested after age 18 and of problematic substance use. Results suggest YAEH with prior involvement in child-serving systems have unique risk characteristics that vary by type of system involvement, with dual-system involved youth at particularly high risk. Findings highlight the need for foster care and juvenile justice systems to work collaboratively in providing preventive interventions prior to system exit.
Child maltreatment in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability: results from a population-based sample
Children with developmental disabilities are at heightened risk for maltreatment. However, little is known regarding the prevalence of maltreatment among specific groups, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or intellectual disability (ID). Information about maltreatment in these groups can aid in the development of supports and prevention strategies for vulnerable children and their families.Using record linkage between the Department of Social Services (DSS) and the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) network, this study compares the prevalence and characteristics of maltreatment among children with ASD-only (n = 316), ASD and comorbid ID (ASD+ID; n = 291), ID-only (n = 1,280), and controls (n = 3,101). Behavioral correlates of maltreatment are examined.Controlling for demographic factors, this study found significantly higher odds of reported and substantiated maltreatment among children with ASD-only (odds ratio = 1.86 for reported, 1.51 for substantiated), ASD+ID (odds ratio = 2.35 for reported, 1.97 for substantiated), and ID-only (odds ratio = 2.45 for reported, 2.49 for substantiated) relative to a population control group, with large effects. In particular, children with ASD+ID and ID-only were between two and three times more likely to experience maltreatment. All groups were more likely to experience physical neglect, and children in the ASD+ID and ID-only groups were more likely to experience all forms of abuse. Children in the ASD-only group were more likely to experience physical abuse. Maltreated children in the ASD-only and ID-only groups experienced more cases of physical abuse and neglect, and were victimized by more perpetrators compared to other maltreated youth. Maltreatment was associated with higher likelihood of aggression, hyperactivity, and tantrums for children with ASD.Children with ASD and/or ID are at heightened risk for maltreatment. Empirically-supported assessment and intervention approaches for identifying and addressing traumatic stress related to maltreatment in ASD are urgently needed.
Text messaging to engage friends/family in diabetes self-management support: acceptability and potential to address disparities
Explore acceptability of engaging family/friends in patients’ type 2 diabetes (T2D) self-management using text messaging. Participants (N = 123) recruited from primary care clinics for a larger trial evaluating mobile phone support for T2D completed self-report measures and a hemoglobin A1c test and then had the option to invite an adult support person to receive text messages. We examined characteristics and reasons of participants who did/did not invite a support person, responses to the invitation, and feedback from patients and support persons. Participants were 55.9 ± 10.1 years old, 55% female, 53% minority, and 54% disadvantaged (low income, less than high school degree/GED, uninsured, and/or homeless). Participants who invited a support person (48%) were slightly younger, more likely to be partnered, and reported more depressive symptoms and more emergency department visits in the year prior to study enrollment as compared to participants who did not (all p <.05). Participants’ reasons for inviting a support person included needing help and seeing benefits of engaging others, while reasons for not inviting a support person included concerns about being a “burden” and support person’s ability or desire to text. Support persons reported the texts increased awareness, created dialogue, and improved their own health behaviors. Patients inviting a support person had higher need and thus may stand to benefit most. Most support persons were open to engagement via text messages. Across race and socioeconomic status, text messaging may engage support persons to increase health-related support—particularly for patients with higher levels of need.