Coping, Discrimination, and Physical Health Conditions Among Predominantly Poor, Urban African Americans: Implications for Community-Level Health Services
African Americans and ethnic minorities experience racial discrimination in a variety of settings. Racial discrimination is a potent stressor that has been linked to psychosocial stress and poor physical health. To cope with discriminatory experiences and daily life event stressors, African Americans frequently use the concept of John Henryism (a high effort coping strategy with prolonged exposure to stress). This cross-sectional analysis explored the relationship between racism/discrimination, John Henryism, and health problems in a predominately African American sample. Data were collected through health care screenings for hypertension, diabetes, and obesity and a self-report survey to assess experiences of discrimination and use of John Henryism. Logistic and linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between the John Henryism score, racism/discrimination score, and health problems among 352 participants. John Henryism was associated with a decrease in systolic blood pressure (b = − 12.50, 95% CI = − 23.05, − 1.95) among men, after adjusting for experiences of racism/discrimination and demographic characteristics. Experiences of racism/discrimination were associated with an increase in systolic blood pressure (b = 11.23, 95% CI = 0.38, 22.09) among men, after adjusting for John Henryism and demographic characteristics. Among women, there was no association found between John Henryism and experiences of racism/discrimination with systolic blood pressure. No association was found between John Henryism and experiences of racism/discrimination with being overweight/obese in women nor men. The study found that John Henryism was positively associated with the health of men, while experiences of racism/discrimination were negatively associated with their health. Limitations of the study are discussed, and recommendations are made to guide future research exploring the concept of John Henryism as a relevant factor between stress, racial discrimination and poor health.
“On a Journey to Appreciate What My Body Does for Me”: Qualitative Results from a Positive Body Image Pilot Intervention Study
Research suggests body appreciation is related to mental, physical, and sexual health behaviors and outcomes that are relevant to social workers and public health clinicians. As such, it is imperative to develop and test interventions that aim to improve body appreciation. The current study is part of a larger pilot intervention study that utilized 3D scanning technology. During the intervention, 18–25-year-old women digitally “painted” their avatar on a computer based on a series of prompts from the researcher. The purpose of this study is to qualitatively explore how a small subsample of the participants (n = 18) experienced this innovative intervention and how they view themselves differently post-intervention. Using thematic analysis, we uncovered three themes: 1) ways of defining body image, 2) importance of body function over aesthetics, and 3) body acceptance and appreciation. This study provides support for the use of one-time individual-level interventions focused on body appreciation and functionality over appearance. Implications are discussed.
Expanding current understandings of epistemic injustice and dementia: Learning from stigma theory
The current paper addresses the nature of epistemic injustice as it may be experienced by persons with dementia. We describe how theoretical models of stigma align with the current model of epistemic injustice through a consideration of the concepts of ‘stereotype’, ‘prejudice’ and ‘discrimination’, shared by the two models. We draw on current understandings of dementia-related stigma to expand understandings of the epistemic injustice faced by persons with dementia. We discuss how these insights may inform the development of mechanisms to uphold the basic human right to speak, to be heard, and to be believed for persons with dementia.
Child, Family, and Case Characteristics Associated With Reentry Into Out-of-Home Care Among Children and Youth Involved With Child Protection Services
Many children and youth with child protection services (CPS) involvement enter out-of-home care. The aims of this study were to examine rates of reentry and risk factors associated with reentry into out-of-home care among children and youth involved in the child protection (reported for abuse/neglect) and youth-in-conflict (reported for behavioral issues) programs. This study used administrative data from Colorado’s Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System, which contains information on all children and youth who enter Colorado’s CPS. Of the 14,461 children and youth in the child protection program and 2,353 children and youth in the youth-in-conflict program, 14.7% and 35.1%, respectively, reentered into out-of-home care. Families’ prior history of CPS involvement and current CPS case characteristics better explained reentry into out-of-home care than child and family demographic characteristics alone. Understanding risk factors associated with reentry into out-of-home care is critical to inform the prevention of child maltreatment recurrence and ensure the safety, permanency, and well-being of children and youth.
Mentoring Matters: An Innovative Approach to Infusing Mentorship in a Social Work Doctoral Program
Social work doctoral students must identify how to prioritize their time and how to gain the many qualifications required by the academic job market. Mentoring has long been recognized as an effective strategy for promoting academic success and degree completion in doctoral studies. This article describes three student-led initiatives in a social work doctoral program that sought to infuse mentorship throughout the program. The content of these innovative initiatives is discussed, as well as their implications for social work doctoral education.
The Potential of College Completion: How Disability Shapes Labor Market Activity Differentially by Educational Attainment and Disability Type
I conducted a descriptive analysis of how disability shapes labor market activity differentially by educational attainment and disability type using the American Community Survey, 2015 (N = 1,504,947) and linear probability models. Having a disability is associated with a decrease in the probability of labor force participation (proportion of those employed or seeking employment; ????=−0.34) and employment (proportion of those in the labor market who are employed; ????=−0.05). When differentiated by disability type, education moderates the relationship between disability and labor force participation for all disability types. However, education only moderates the relationship between disability and employment for those with cognitive-, physical-, and mobility-related disabilities (not sensory or self-care). Having a bachelor’s degree is associated with a 30.68% higher probability of labor force participation and a 26.84% higher probability of employment among those in the labor force than having some college, indicating higher education may be a pivotal intervention point. The relationships between disability and labor force participation and disability and employment vary by disability type, as does the role of education.
Exploring the relationship between cumulative trauma and recidivism among older adults: Does race and offense history matter?
There is a dearth of knowledge on the role of cumulative trauma, stress, and minority oppression on recidivism among incarcerated elder population. The current study fills a gap in the literature by exploring the association between race, trauma, offense history, and recidivism among incarcerated elders. This study used a cross-sectional correlational design with 607 adult males aged 50 and older in a Northeastern state correctional system. Results of a series of moderation analyses revealed that drug offense history had a significant moderating effect on the relationship between trauma and recidivism. However, minority status or violent offense history was not found to be a significant moderator of the trauma and recidivism relationship. These findings suggest prevention and intervention efforts would benefit from incorporating trauma-informed approaches and principles of restorative justice that facilitate individual, family, and community healing.
Preadolescents’ Daily Peer Victimization and Perceived Social Competence: Moderating Effects of Classroom Aggression
Few studies have assessed children’s daily peer experiences, and even fewer have considered their daily self-perceptions. This daily diary study examined relations between preadolescents’ daily reports of peer victimization and perceived social competence, along with moderating effects of classroom aggression. A racially diverse sample of 182 children in 5th grade (105 boys; M age = 10.64 years; 35% White, 31% Black, 17% Hispanic, 17% other or not reported) completed daily measures of peer victimization and perceived social competence, with most children completing measures on 8 school days. Teachers completed measures of aggression for each participating pupil. Four types of peer victimization (verbal victimization, social manipulation, social rebuff, and property attacks) predicted decreased daily perceived social competence. Daily social rebuff predicted decreased daily perceived social competence beyond the effects of the other types of victimization. Classroom aggression moderated the relation of verbal victimization with perceived social competence, such that this relation was significant in classrooms with lower aggression and nonsignificant in classrooms with higher aggression. Results indicate that preadolescents’ daily self-perceptions fluctuate with daily victimization by peers, particularly with social rebuff. Findings also suggest that the impact of verbal victimization on children’s self-views could be exacerbated in classrooms that better manage peer-to-peer aggression. Accordingly, targeted interventions appear critical for children who continue to experience peer victimization in schools with highly effective aggression prevention programs.
Cortical Visual Impairment Treated by Plasmapheresis in a Child With Metronidazole-Induced Encephalopathy
The Dehumanization of Black Males by Police: Teaching Social Justice—Black Life Really Does Matter!
Despite the contemporary public’s discourse regarding the embrace of human diversity within the United States, Black males still are perennially brutalized, killed, and negatively stereotyped. Recent events regarding police killings underscore the reality that even though Black males have the same constitutional and civil rights as all other citizens, in practice their rights are often violated or denied. The negative stereotypes of Black males is problematic because it creates an environment and negative perception of them that causes some police officers to claim that they feared for their life before shooting. In this article the authors discuss the history of police oppression and killing of Black males and offer critical race theory as a theoretical perspective that helps to explain this pervasive social inequity. More important, the authors provide practical classroom narratives, assignments, and strategies that may hold promise in addressing the problem of police brutality and the killing of Black males.
Adverse childhood experiences and complex health concerns among child welfare-involved children
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) contribute to public health concerns, as they have been linked to chronic diseases in adulthood. From the seminal ACEs study in the mid-1990s (Felitti et al., 1998) to today, the Centers for Disease Control (2016) reports well over 50 studies that link ACEs to adult health conditions such as cancer, heart disease, lung disease, and mental illness. This preponderance of evidence has prompted widespread attention to the possibility that preventing and successfully treating ACE-associated traumatic stress would greatly reduce our country’s incidence of chronic disease and the associated public health burden and cost (Danese et al., 2009). To illustrate, one study suggests that child abuse and neglect alone costs the United States $124 billion annually, with individual lifetime costs that are higher than or equal to the economic burden of diabetes and stroke (Fang, Brown, Florence, & Mercy, 2012). That child maltreatment is just one category of 10 total ACEs suggests that the total financial impact of ACEs in the United States is likely much greater and that some populations, such as children involved in child welfare, may be disproportionately affected by the negative effects of adverse childhood experiences.
The Framework of Historical Oppression, Resilience and Transcendence to Understand Disparities in Depression Amongst Indigenous Peoples
Given chronic experiences of historical oppression, Indigenous peoples tend to experience much higher rates of depression than the general US population, which then, drives disproportionately high rates of suicide and other health disparities. The purpose of this research was to examine the core components of the culturally grounded Framework of Historical Oppression, Resilience, and Transcendence as they relate to depressive symptoms experienced by Indigenous peoples. As part of a larger convergent mixed-methods study, in this quantitative survey component, we utilised data from a sample of 127 Indigenous adults across two Southeastern US tribes. Regression analysis results signified support for the framework, indicating that historical oppression and proximal stress (daily stressors and lower incomes) were risk factors, whereas family resilience and life satisfaction (a measure of transcendence) were protective factors related to depressive symptoms. The results provide a foundation for future research to build upon in identifying culturally relevant risk and protective factors to ameliorate depression and other health disparities.
Racial discrimination, John Henryism coping, and behavioral health conditions among predominantly poor, urban African Americans: Implications for community‐level opioid problems and mental health services
The current study examined the relationship between John Henryism Active Coping (JHAC), experiences of racial discrimination, and behavioral health outcomes in a community sample of 319 Black adults. Assessments included primary health care screenings as well as self‐reported survey questions to assess JHAC, experiences of discrimination, and self‐reported behavioral health. Logistic regression models, adjusted for control variables, found a significant relationship between JHAC and having an opioid problem (odds ratio [OR] = 0.95, p = 0.003) and needing mental health services (OR = 0.95, p < 0.001), such that higher levels of coping were associated with lower odds of reporting an opioid problem and needing mental health services. Notably, racial discrimination was not significantly independently associated with behavioral health. Implications for interventions and community programming are discussed.
Is body appreciation a mechanism of depression and anxiety? An investigation of the 3-Dimensional Body Appreciation Mapping (3D-BAM) intervention
Body appreciation is related to numerous mental health outcomes, including depression and anxiety. This pilot study investigated the effects of an intervention, 3-Dimensional Body Appreciation Mapping (3D-BAM), developed to improve body image, depression, and anxiety by using 3D scanning technology to train participants to focus on ways they appreciate their bodies. Eighty-nine emerging adult women (Mage = 20.64) participated in the intervention and completed body image and mental health measures at baseline, pre/post-intervention, and 3-month follow up. For the intervention, participants digitally “painted” body parts of their personalized 3D avatar that they believed lived up to the cultural image of women, and that they appreciated for their appearance, utility, and role in interpersonal relationships. Following the intervention, participants reported increased body appreciation over time. Depression and anxiety decreased, but the reduction cannot be attributed to the intervention. However, body appreciation had a significant negative effect on depression and anxiety. These preliminary findings illustrate how utilizing 3D scanning technology to focus on body appreciation can improve body image among emerging adult women and reduce pathology.
#Metoosocialworkeducation: Exposure to Interpersonal Violence Among Social Work Students
BSW and MSW social work students are effected by interpersonal violence on campus, yet little is known about their experiences during schooling. This study explored rates of victimization and associated effects since institutional enrollment among a sample of 734 MSW, PhD and BSW social work students across a university system. Over 14% of participants reported sexual violence, 17% reported stalking, and 30% reported sexual harassment. Over 8% reported physical intimate partner violence (IPV) and 19.4% reported psychological IPV. Social work students did not significantly differ from non–social work students in rates of violence, though they reported a significantly greater fear of victimization than other students. Findings illustrate the need for trauma-informed classrooms and awareness of Title IX polices among social work educators.
The colorist-historical trauma framework: Implications for culturally responsive practice with African Americans
An evolution of thought and practice regarding the relationship of racism to well-being, healing, and trauma continues within social work and the helping professions. Additionally, empirical research on colorism as a key dimension of racism suggests that colorism negatively impacts the psychological and physical well-being of African Americans. However, few studies have examined well-being among African Americans in the context of historical trauma, through the lens of colorism. In this paper, the intersectionality of colorism and historical trauma is explored to inform culturally responsive social work education, practice, and research regarding African American well-being. It is the first step toward developing a colorist-historical trauma framework. The impact of colorism as a function of historical trauma response transmission among African Americans is presented.
#PrEP4Love: An Evaluation of a Sex-Positive HIV Prevention Campaign
Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective but underutilized method for preventing HIV transmission in communities vulnerable to HIV. Public health campaigns aimed at increasing PrEP awareness and access have less evaluation data. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate Chicago’s PrEP campaign, PrEP4Love (P4L), a campaign that uses health equity and sex-positivity approaches for information dissemination. Methods: P4L launched in February 2016 and remains an active campaign to date. The analysis period for this paper was from the launch date in February 2016 through May 15, 2016. Our analysis reviews the Web-based reach of the campaign through views on social media platforms (Facebook and Instagram), smart ads, or ads served to individuals across a variety of Web platforms based on their demographics and browsing history, and P4L website clicks. Results: In total, 40,913,560 unique views were generated across various social media platforms. A total of 24,548 users clicked on P4L ads and 32,223,987 views were received from smart ads. The 3 most clicked on ads were STD Signs & Symptoms—More Information on STD Symptoms, HIV & AIDS Prevention, and HIV Prevention Medication. An additional 6,970,127 views were gained through Facebook and another 1,719,446 views through Instagram. There was an average of 182 clicks per day on the P4L website. Conclusions: This is the first study investigating public responses to a health equity and sex-positive social marketing campaign for PrEP. Overall, the campaign reached millions of individuals. More studies of PrEP social marketing are needed to evaluate the relationship of targeted public health campaigns on stigma and to guide future PrEP promotion strategies.
Trauma-informed care with women diagnosed with postpartum depression: a conceptual framework
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a mental health disorder that affects approximately 20% of all new mothers. PPD frequently co-occurs with and is exacerbated by trauma, particularly for women from vulnerable populations. Trauma-informed care (TIC) is a best practice that recognizes the importance of, and takes steps to promote recovery from, trauma while preventing retraumatization. Despite its potential utility, there is limited research published on TIC, including how TIC is operationalized across practice settings. Further, despite the prevalence and negative effects of untreated PPD, to date there have been limited articles published on TIC and PPD. The purpose of this article is to provide a TIC framework for service delivery for women diagnosed with PPD including explicit strategies for how TIC should be structured across roles, settings, and systems. Implications for health practice, policy, and future research are provided.
The Systemic Therapy Inventory of Change (STIC) Initial Scales: Are they sensitive to change?
The Systemic Therapy Inventory of Change (STIC) is a multisystemic and multidimensional feedback system that provides therapists feedback about systemic domains of client change in individual, couple, and family therapy over time. The goal of the present study is to investigate the sensitivity to change of the scores of the STIC Initial Scales. In total, 583 clients who voluntarily sought individual, couple, or family therapy services and participated in a randomized controlled trial study were included in the study. Their pre- and posttherapy responses to the STIC Initial measures and corresponding validation measures for individual functioning, couple relationship, child adjustment, and family functioning were compared. The results support the sensitivity to change of the scores of the four STIC Initial Scales investigated: Individual Problems and Strengths (IPS), Relationship with Partner (RWP), Family/Household (FH), and Child Problems and Strengths (CPS). Of particular note, the IPS demonstrated even greater change over time than the BDI-II, BAI, and OQ-45. The discriminant validity of measuring change with the CPS was not supported. Thus, the STIC Initial IPS, RWP, and FH can be usefully employed to measure multisystemic changes in both research and clinical work.
The organizational challenges of mixed-income development: privatizing public housing through cross-sector collaboration
One of the largely undocumented dimensions of public housing transformation in the United States is the multi-sector, multi-organizational collaborations whose charge is to manage the local implementation of mixed-income developments. In Chicago, private real estate developers entered into partnerships with the Chicago Housing Authority to finance, design, build, and manage the new developments. Key topics considered in this paper include the structures and processes of new organizational working relationships that have been established, how they are evolving over time, and the key operational challenges confronted in creating and sustaining them. We argue that these cross-sector collaborations within the context of the privatization of public housing generate complex organizational roles and dynamics that would benefit from far greater intentionality, clarity, and support to promote effectiveness and accountability.